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      Defect in Brnym1, a magnesium-dechelatase protein, causes a stay-green phenotype in an EMS-mutagenized Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) line

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          Abstract

          Leaf color is an important target trait in Chinese cabbage breeding programs. Leaf yellowing may reduce crop commercial and nutritional values. Some plants with the “stay-green” trait maintain leaf greenness during senescence and even after death. Stay-green Chinese cabbage may be a focal point of future breeding projects because it could improve crop quality and yield and prolong shelf life. A new stay-green mutant, non-yellowing mutant 1 ( nym1), was identified in Chinese cabbage derived from an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized population. The mutant had stay-green characteristics and a higher chlorophyll content than the wild-type during leaf senescence. The stay-green trait in the mutant Chinese cabbage was controlled by the recessive gene Brnym1. MutMap and KASP analyses showed that Brnym1 ( BraA03g050600.3C) encodes an mg-dechelatase (SGR protein), which might be the causal gene of the mutation in Chinese cabbage. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide base substitution (G to A) in the third exon of Brnym1 caused an amino acid substitution from L to F in the highly conserved domain of the magnesium-dechelatase. Ectopic overexpression showed that the BrNYM1 gene of wild-type Chinese cabbage complemented the SGR-defective stay-green mutant nye1-1 of Arabidopsis. The magnesium-dechelatase activity in the nym1 mutant was significantly downregulated compared to that in the wild type. Brnym1 was relatively upregulated in the mutant during late senescence, and BrNYM1 was localized to the chloroplasts. These results indicate that Brnym1 ( BraA03g050600.3C) is the causal gene of the stay-green mutation and could be of particular significance in the genetic improvement of Chinese cabbage.

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          Genome sequencing reveals agronomically important loci in rice using MutMap.

          The majority of agronomic traits are controlled by multiple genes that cause minor phenotypic effects, making the identification of these genes difficult. Here we introduce MutMap, a method based on whole-genome resequencing of pooled DNA from a segregating population of plants that show a useful phenotype. In MutMap, a mutant is crossed directly to the original wild-type line and then selfed, allowing unequivocal segregation in second filial generation (F(2)) progeny of subtle phenotypic differences. This approach is particularly amenable to crop species because it minimizes the number of genetic crosses (n = 1 or 0) and mutant F(2) progeny that are required. We applied MutMap to seven mutants of a Japanese elite rice cultivar and identified the unique genomic positions most probable to harbor mutations causing pale green leaves and semidwarfism, an agronomically relevant trait. These results show that MutMap can accelerate the genetic improvement of rice and other crop plants.
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            Five ways to stay green.

            The relationship between carbon income and expenditure over the life of a leaf is described and related to the productivity benefits of altering the timing of senescence initiation. In genetic variants with delayed leaf senescence ('stay-greens') deconstruction of the photosynthetic apparatus during leaf senescence is partially or completely prevented. Although the staygreen phenotype is superficially similar in all species and genotypes, the genetic and physiological routes to the trait are diverse. In one type of stay-green, chlorophyll catabolism is disabled. Legumes and monocots with pigment breakdown lesions are discussed. Sorghum is presented as an example of another kind of stay-green in which perennial tendencies have been bred into a monocarpic annual crop species. Transgenic approaches are briefly discussed (enhanced endogenous cytokinins, reduced ethylene production or perception). An alternative route towards making a stay-green phenotype is through quantitative trait mapping and marker-assisted selection. Loci for greenness in pearl millet have been identified, some of which are associated with drought responses or flowering time. Finally the question of the limits on stay-green as a productivity-enhancing character is addressed.
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              Rice NON-YELLOW COLORING1 is involved in light-harvesting complex II and grana degradation during leaf senescence.

              Chlorophyll degradation is an aspect of leaf senescence, which is an active process to salvage nutrients from old tissues. non-yellow coloring1 (nyc1) is a rice (Oryza sativa) stay-green mutant in which chlorophyll degradation during senescence is impaired. Pigment analysis revealed that degradation of not only chlorophylls but also light-harvesting complex II (LHCII)-bound carotenoids was repressed in nyc1, in which most LHCII isoforms were selectively retained during senescence. Ultrastructural analysis of nyc1 chloroplasts revealed that large and thick grana were present even in the late stage of senescence, suggesting that degradation of LHCII is required for the proper degeneration of thylakoid membranes. Map-based cloning of NYC1 revealed that it encodes a chloroplast-localized short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) with three transmembrane domains. The predicted structure of the NYC1 protein and the phenotype of the nyc1 mutant suggest the possibility that NYC1 is a chlorophyll b reductase. Although we were unable to detect the chlorophyll b reductase activity of NYC1, NOL (for NYC1-like), a protein closely related to NYC1 in rice, showed chlorophyll b reductase activity in vitro. We suggest that NYC1 and NOL encode chlorophyll b reductases with divergent functions. Our data collectively suggest that the identified SDR protein NYC1 plays essential roles in the regulation of LHCII and thylakoid membrane degradation during senescence.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                fenghuiaaa@syau.edu.cn
                Journal
                Hortic Res
                Hortic Res
                Horticulture Research
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2052-7276
                1 January 2020
                1 January 2020
                2020
                : 7
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0000 9886 8131, GRID grid.412557.0, Department of Horticulture, , Shenyang Agricultural University, ; Shenyang, China
                Article
                223
                10.1038/s41438-019-0223-6
                6944686
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31730082)
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                plant breeding

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