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      Polariton Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature in an Al(Ga)N nanowire-dielectric microcavity with a spatial potential trap

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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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          Most cited references 42

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          Absence of Ferromagnetism or Antiferromagnetism in One- or Two-Dimensional Isotropic Heisenberg Models

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            Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons.

            Phase transitions to quantum condensed phases--such as Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), superfluidity, and superconductivity--have long fascinated scientists, as they bring pure quantum effects to a macroscopic scale. BEC has, for example, famously been demonstrated in dilute atom gas of rubidium atoms at temperatures below 200 nanokelvin. Much effort has been devoted to finding a solid-state system in which BEC can take place. Promising candidate systems are semiconductor microcavities, in which photons are confined and strongly coupled to electronic excitations, leading to the creation of exciton polaritons. These bosonic quasi-particles are 10(9) times lighter than rubidium atoms, thus theoretically permitting BEC to occur at standard cryogenic temperatures. Here we detail a comprehensive set of experiments giving compelling evidence for BEC of polaritons. Above a critical density, we observe massive occupation of the ground state developing from a polariton gas at thermal equilibrium at 19 K, an increase of temporal coherence, and the build-up of long-range spatial coherence and linear polarization, all of which indicate the spontaneous onset of a macroscopic quantum phase.
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              Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                February 19 2013
                February 19 2013
                February 04 2013
                February 19 2013
                : 110
                : 8
                : 2735-2740
                10.1073/pnas.1210842110
                © 2013
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