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      Insulin-Like Growth Factor System Components in Relation to Erythropoietin Therapy and Bone Metabolism in Dialyzed Patients and Kidney Transplant Recipients

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          Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system components appear to be the most important regulators of bone cell function. On the other hand, IGF-1 is shown to be an important regulator for erythropoiesis. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between IGF system, requirements of erythropoietin, endogeneous erythropoietin levels, bone metabolism assesed by biochemical markers, markers of nutrition such as cholesterol and albumin in recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO)-treated patients maintained on chronic hemodialyses or peritoneal dialyses as well as in kidney transplant recipients. The studies were performed on 79 chronically hemodialyzed patients; 28 of them did not receive rHuEPO, 51 subjects received rHuEPO, 34 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 16 of them did not receive rHuEPO, 18 were given rHuEPO and 46 kidney allograft recipients. Endogeneous erythropoietin concentration, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and serum CrossLaps were assayed by ELISA. Intact PTH, osteocalcin, 1,25-(OH)<sub>2</sub> D<sub>3</sub>, 25-OH D<sub>3</sub>, IGF-1, procollagen type I carboxy-terminal extension peptide (PICP) and procollagen type I cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) were studied by RIA, whereas IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 concentrations were assayed by IRMA. We found a significantly higher IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in rHuEPO-treated HD patients when compared to CAPD subjects given rHuEPO as well as to hemodialysis (HD) patients not treated with rHuEPO. IGF-1 was significantly higher in kidney transplant recipients when compared to dialyzed patients without rHuEPO therapy. IGFBP-1 was similar in all groups of patients (including kidney transplant recipients) studied. In CAPD patients not given rHuEPO concentrations of ICTP and PICP were significantly lower when compared to rHuEPO-treated CAPD subjects and HD patients not receiving rHuEPO therapy. Serum CrossLaps in CAPD patients treated with rHuEPO were significantly higher when compared to CAPD subjects without rHuEPO treatment and to kidney transplant recipients. In rHuEPO-treated CAPD subjects IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 correlated positively with serum CrossLaps (r = 0.61, p < 0.05 and r = 0.64, p < 0.05, respectively), whereas in hemodialyzed patients without rHuEPO a significant negative correlation between IGFBP-3 and serum CrossLaps was found (r = –0.69, p < 0.001) as well as between IGFBP-3 and aluminium (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), IGF-1 and ICTP (r = –0.43, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate a probable functional relationship between IGF system components, erythropoietin treatment in dialyzed patients and bone metabolism in renal replacement therapy in a form of hemodialyses, peritoneal dialyses and kidney transplantation. Dialyzed patients exhibit more pronounced renal osteodystrophy than kidney allograft recipients. IGF system components are influenced by erythropoietin therapy, but are not related to serum erythropoietin levels and rHuEPO requirements.

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          Bone marrow, cytokines, and bone remodeling. Emerging insights into the pathophysiology of osteoporosis.

          Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts are derived from progenitors that reside in the bone marrow; osteoblasts belong to the mesenchymal lineage of the marrow stroma, and osteoclasts to the hematopoietic lineage. The development of osteoclasts from their progenitors is dependent on stromal-osteoblastic cells, which are a major source of cytokines that are critical in osteoclastogenesis, such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-11. The production of interleukin-6 by stromal osteoblastic cells, as well as the responsiveness of bone marrow cells to cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-11, is regulated by sex steroids. When gonadal function is lost, the formation of osteoclasts as well as osteoblasts increases in the marrow, both changes apparently mediated by an increase in the production of interleukin-6 and perhaps by an increase in the responsiveness of bone marrow progenitor cells not only to interleukin-6 but also to other cytokines with osteoclastogenic and osteoblastogenic properties. The cellular activity of the bone marrow is also altered by the process of aging. Specifically, senescence may decrease the ability of the marrow to form osteoblast precursors. The association between the dysregulation of osteoclast or osteoblast development in the marrow and the disruption of the balance between bone resorption and bone formation, resulting in the loss of bone, leads to the following notion. Like homeostasis of other regenerating tissues, homeostasis of bone depends on the orderly replenishment of its cellular constituents. Excessive osteoclastogenesis and inadequate osteoblastogenesis are responsible for the mismatch between the formation and resorption of bone in postmenopausal and age-related osteopenia. The recognition that changes in the numbers of bone cells, rather than changes in the activity of individual cells, form the pathogenetic basis of osteoporosis is a major advance in understanding the mechanism of this disease.
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                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                March 2002
                25 February 2002
                : 90
                : 3
                : 282-289
                Departments of aNephrology and bGynecological Endocrinology, Białystok School of Medicine, Białystok, Poland
                49064 Nephron 2002;90:282–289
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Tables: 3, References: 28, Pages: 8
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