Epidermal nevus syndrome is an unusual neurocutaneous disorder in which epidermal nevi are associated with abnormalities of the skeleton and central nervous system, including the eyes and somtimes the cardiovascular system. We treated a patient in whom the latter included renal artery stenosis. An 18-year-old man with epidermal nevi was diagnosed as having the syndrome based on the additional presence of scoliosis, an arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa, and microphthalmos. Hypertension was diagnosed when the patient was 15 years old. The plasma renin activity (9.7 ng/ml/h) was elevated. Right renal artery stenosis was demonstrated by angiography, and the abdominal aorta was narrowed distal to the ostium of the superior mesenteric artery. The plasma renin activity in the right renal vein (16 ng/ml/h) was higher than contralaterally (10 ng/ml/h). Several cardiovascular manifestations have been reported as a complication of epidermal nevus syndrome. Hypertension in an individual with epidermal nevi and congenital anomalies should prompt a search for a vascular anomaly.