The striatum is a key hub in the basal ganglia for processing neural information from the sensory, motor, and limbic cortices. The massive and diverse cortical inputs entering the striatum allow the basal ganglia to perform a repertoire of neurological functions ranging from basic level of motor control to high level of cognition. The heterogeneity of the corticostriatal circuits, however, also renders the system susceptible to a repertoire of neurological diseases. Clinical and animal model studies have indicated that defective development of the corticostriatal circuits is linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and schizophrenia. Importantly, many neuropsychiatric disease-risk genes have been found to form the molecular building blocks of the circuit wiring at the synaptic level. It is therefore imperative to understand how corticostriatal connectivity is established during development. Here, we review the construction during development of these corticostriatal circuits at the synaptic level, which should provide important insights into the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders related to the basal ganglia and help the development of appropriate therapies for these diseases.