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      Polymorphism of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene in End-Stage Renal Failure Patients

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          The plasma levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are modulated by the insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism within the ACE gene locus. An association between progressive renal disease, raised cardiovascular risk, and ACE plasma levels has been shown. To evaluate the genotype frequencies of the I/D polymorphism in terminal renal failure, we have enrolled 341 dialysis patients (321 on hemodialysis and 20 on peritoneal dialysis) in a district of southern Italy (Foggia). As controls, 1,307 subjects from the same area have been enrolled. Genomic DNA was obtained from leukocytes, and the ACE I/D polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Among uremics, 151 subjects (44.3%) carried the DD genotype, 149 (43.7%) the ID, and 41 (12.0%) the II genotype. In controls, 560 subjects (42.8%) had the DD genotype, 577 (44.1%) the ID, and 170 (13.1%) the II genotype (p = n.s.). Among patients, the frequency of DD subjects was higher in men (48.3%) than in women (39.7%, p < 0.01). A slight different frequency of the DD genotype was found according to the duration of dialysis treatment: 47.5% in patients on dialysis up to 60 months and 41.7 and 40.6% in those with a dialytic age of 60–120 and >120 months, respectively (p for trend: 0.53). Patients with or without cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, and chronic cardiac failure, did not exhibit any difference in ACE I/D allele and genotype frequencies (p always >0.05). In conclusion, frequencies of the ACE DD genotype were similar in uremics and in controls and did not differ between patients with and without cardiovascular diseases. A nonsignificant inverse relationship with the time spent on dialysis was observed, suggesting that ACE I/D polymorphism may influence the cardiovascular death rate.

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          A prospective evaluation of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene polymorphism and the risk of ischemic heart disease.

          In a previous study, men with a history of myocardial infarction were found to have an increased prevalence of homozygosity for the deletional allele (D) of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) gene. The D allele is associated with higher levels of ACE, which may predispose a person to ischemic heart disease. We investigated the association between the ACE genotype and the incidence of myocardial infarction, as well as other manifestations of ischemic heart disease, in a large, prospective cohort of U.S. male physicians. In the Physicians' Health Study, ischemic heart disease as defined by angina, coronary revascularization, or myocardial infarction developed in 1250 men by 1992. They were matched with 2340 controls according to age and smoking history. Zygosity for the deletion-insertion (D-I) polymorphism of the ACE gene was determined by an assay based on the polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed for both matched pairs and unmatched samples, with adjustment for the effects of known or suspected risk factors by conditional and nonconditional logistic regression, respectively. The ACE genotype was not associated with the occurrence of either ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction. The adjusted relative risk associated with the D allele was 1.07 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.19; P = 0.24) for ischemic heart disease and 1.05 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.89 to 1.25; P = 0.56) for myocardial infarction, if an additive mode of inheritance is assumed. Additional analyses assuming dominant and recessive effects of the D allele also failed to show any association, as did the examination of low-risk subgroups. In a large, prospectively followed population of U.S. male physicians, the presence of the D allele of the ACE gene conferred no appreciable increase in the risk of ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction.
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            Angiotensin-converting enzyme DD genotype in patients with ischaemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

            Polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been shown to correlate with circulating ACE concentrations, and also to be an independent risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction, particularly in men thought to be at low risk by standard criteria. We determined the genotypes of individuals with end-stage heart failure due to either ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (102) or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (112) and compared these to organ donors with normally functioning hearts (79). Genotypes were determined by the polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers flanking the polymorphic region in intron 16 of the ACE gene to amplify template DNA isolated from patients. Compared with the DD frequency in the control population, the frequency of the ACE DD genotype was 48% higher in individuals with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (p = 0.008) and 63% higher in subjects with ischaemic cardiomyopathy (p = 0.008), suggesting that an ACE gene variant may contribute to the pathogenesis of both types of cardiomyopathy.
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              Polymorphisms in angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene and progression of IgA nephropathy


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                May 2000
                21 April 2000
                : 85
                : 1
                : 54-59
                aDepartment of Nephrology and Dialysis and bAtherosclerosis and Thrombosis Unit, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, Hospital IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo, andDepartments of Nephrology of the Hospitals of cSan Severo, dFoggia, and eCerignola, Italy
                45630 Nephron 2000;85:54–59
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 35, Pages: 6
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                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Dialysis, Polymorphism, Gene


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