Background: In patients on hemodialysis with end-stage renal disease there is an increasing interest in measuring both residual renal function (RRF) and quantity and quality of dialysis because insufficient dialysis gives higher mortality. For that purpose we have measured clearances of two urographic iodine (I) contrast media (CM) with different molecular masses (iohexol 821 u and iodixanol 1,550 u). These CM are filtered through glomeruli and dialysis membranes and have higher molecular masses than urea and creatinine and might represent the dialyzability of the hypothetic uremic toxins with a molecular mass of 300–5,000 u. Methods: Thirteen patients (8 of them were anuric) immediately after hemodialysis received 15 ml iohexol (300 mg I/ml i.v.) and 2 weeks later in the same way 15 ml iodixanol (320 mg I/ml). Nine other patients (2 anuric) received CM after only one dialysis; 8 got iohexol and 1 got iodixanol. After the CM injections the iodine concentrations were measured with X-ray fluorescence in blood and, when available, urine during the following 2 days including both the start and end of the next dialysis. Eighteen patients after two dialysis sessions, 2 weeks apart, received 10 ml iohexol i.v., and a single blood sample was taken at the start of the next dialysis 2 days later to determine RRF alone. Results: In the 10 anuric patients the extrarenal clearances (mean ± SD) were 2.5 ± 1.1 and 2.7 ± 1.1 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> for iohexol and iodixanol, respectively. In patients with RRF good correlations were demonstrated between body clearance, based on two blood samples, and renal clearance of CM. Good correlations (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.853 for iohexol, r<sup>2</sup> = 0.933 for iodixanol) were noted between two-sample and single-sample body clearances. Repeated single sample iohexol clearances gave a coefficient of variation of 15%. During dialysis the clearances of iohexol and iodixanol were, respectively, 69 ± 16 and 58 ± 11 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> when calculated from a single-pool model (hemodialysis clearance of CM from plasma). A median increase (rebound) of CM concentrations in plasma 45 min dialysis was 8% for iodixanol and 18% for iohexol. When the CM concentration 45 min after dialysis was used, the clearance values were by 8–10% lower and represented the hemodialysis clearance of CM from the extracellular compartments. The dialysis eliminations of iohexol and iodixanol were similar to that of urea, measured as percentage reduction of serum levels during dialysis. Conclusions: A single injection of CM at the end of dialysis followed by a single blood sample at the start of the next dialysis gives total body clearance, i.e., an estimation of the RRF. An additional blood sample at the end of the next dialysis gives dialysis efficiency.