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      Biofilm inhibition activity of compounds isolated from two Eunicea species collected at the Caribbean Sea

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          Abstract

          Abstract Biofilm has a primary role in the pathogenesis of diseases and in the attachment of multicellular organisms to a fouled surface. Because of that, the control of bacterial biofilms has been identified as an important target. In the present study, five lipid compounds isolated from soft coral Eunicea sp. and three terpenoids together with a mixture of sterols from Eunicea fusca collected at the Colombian Caribbean Sea showed different effectiveness against biofilm formation by three marine bacteria associated with immersed fouled surfaces, Ochrobactrum pseudogringnonense,Alteromona macleodii and Vibrio harveyi, and against two known biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The pure compounds were characterized by NMR, HRESI-MS, HRGC-MS and optical rotation. The most effective compounds were batyl alcohol (1) and fuscoside E peracetate (6), acting against four strains without affecting their microbial growth. Compound 1 showed biofilm inhibition greater than 30% against A. macleodii, and up to 60% against O. pseudogringnonense,V. harveyi and S. aureus. Compound 6 inhibited O. pseudogringnonense and V. harveyi between 25 and 50%, and P. aeruginosa or S. aureus up to 60% at 0.5 mg/ml. The results suggest that these compounds exhibit specific biofilm inhibition with lower antimicrobial effect against the bacterial species assayed.

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          Design and Analysis of Experiments

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            Structures and physiological roles of 13 integral lipids of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase.

            All 13 lipids, including two cardiolipins, one phosphatidylcholine, three phosphatidylethanolamines, four phosphatidylglycerols and three triglycerides, were identified in a crystalline bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) preparation. The chain lengths and unsaturated bond positions of the fatty acid moieties determined by mass spectrometry suggest that each lipid head group identifies its specific binding site within CcOs. The X-ray structure demonstrates that the flexibility of the fatty acid tails facilitates their effective space-filling functions and that the four phospholipids stabilize the CcO dimer. Binding of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide to the O(2) transfer pathway of CcO causes two palmitate tails of phosphatidylglycerols to block the pathway, suggesting that the palmitates control the O(2) transfer process.The phosphatidylglycerol with vaccenate (cis-Delta(11)-octadecenoate) was found in CcOs of bovine and Paracoccus denitrificans, the ancestor of mitochondrion, indicating that the vaccenate is conserved in bovine CcO in spite of the abundance of oleate (cis-Delta(9)-octadecenoate). The X-ray structure indicates that the protein moiety selects cis-vaccenate near the O(2) transfer pathway against trans-vaccenate. These results suggest that vaccenate plays a critical role in the O(2) transfer mechanism.
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              Comparative genomics of two ecotypes of the marine planktonic copiotroph Alteromonas macleodii suggests alternative lifestyles associated with different kinds of particulate organic matter.

              Alteromonas macleodii is a common marine heterotrophic gamma-proteobacterium. Isolates from this microbe cluster by molecular analysis into two major genotypic groups or ecotypes, one found in temperate latitudes in the upper water column and another that is for the most part found in the deep water column of the Mediterranean. Here, we describe the genome of one strain of the 'deep ecotype' (AltDE) isolated from 1000 m in the Eastern Mediterranean and compare this genome with that of the type strain ATCC 27126, a representative of the global 'surface' ecotype. The genomes are substantially different with DNA sequence similarity values that are borderline for microbes belonging to the same species, and a large differential gene content, mainly found in islands larger than 20 kbp, that also recruit poorly to the Global Ocean Sampling project (GOS). These genomic differences indicate that AltDE is probably better suited to microaerophilic conditions and for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds such as urea. These, together with other features, and the distribution of this genotypic group, indicate that this microbe colonizes relatively large particles that sink rapidly to meso and bathypelagic depths. The genome of ATCC 27126 on the other hand has more potential for regulation (two component systems) and degrades more sugars and amino acids, which is consistent with a more transient particle attachment, as would be expected for lineages specialized in colonizing smaller particulate organic matter with much slower sinking rates. The genomic data are also consistent with a picture of incipient speciation driven by niche specialization.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbfar
                Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
                Rev. bras. farmacogn.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia (Curitiba )
                1981-528X
                December 2015
                : 25
                : 6
                : 605-611
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Nacional de Colombia Colombia
                [2 ] Universidad Nacional de Colombia Colombia
                [3 ] Universidad Nacional de Colombia Colombia
                [4 ] Universidad Nacional de Colombia Colombia
                Article
                S0102-695X2015000600605
                10.1016/j.bjp.2015.08.007
                ea56844b-0d4b-4589-91c7-49e6aaff18de

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0102-695X&lng=en
                Categories
                PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACY

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                Anti-biofilm,Eunicea fusca,Eunicea sp.,Lipid compounds,Terpenoids,Marine natural products

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