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      Electrophysiological, behavioural and biochemical effect of Ocimum basilicum oil and its constituents methyl chavicol and linalool on Musca domestica L.

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          Abstract

          Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EO) was evaluated for its biological effects on M. domestica. Characterization of O. basilicum EO revealed the presence of methyl chavicol (70.93%), linalool (9.34%), epi-α-cadinol (3.69 %), methyl eugenol (2.48%), γ-cadinene (1.67%), 1,8-cineole (1.30%) and ( E)-β-ocimene (1.11%). The basil EO and its constituents methyl chavicol and linalool elicited a neuronal response in female adults of M. domestica. Adult female flies showed reduced preference to food source laced with basil EO and methyl chavicol. Substrates treated with EO and methyl chavicol at 0.25% resulted in an oviposition deterrence of over 80%. A large ovicidal effect was found for O. basilicum EO (EC 50 9.74 mg/dm 3) followed by methyl chavicol (EC 50 10.67 mg/dm 3) and linalool (EC 50 13.57 mg/dm 3). Adults exposed to EO (LD 50 10.01 μg/adult) were more susceptible to contact toxicity than to methyl chavicol and linalool (LD 50 13.62 μg/adult and LD 50 43.12 μg/adult respectively). EO and its constituents methyl chavicol and linalool also induced the detoxifying enzymes Carboxyl esterase (Car E) and Glutathione S – transferases (GST).

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          Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

          In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited.
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            A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding

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              Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world.

               Murray Isman (2006)
              Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropod pests continues to expand, yet only a handful of botanicals are currently used in agriculture in the industrialized world, and there are few prospects for commercial development of new botanical products. Pyrethrum and neem are well established commercially, pesticides based on plant essential oils have recently entered the marketplace, and the use of rotenone appears to be waning. A number of plant substances have been considered for use as insect antifeedants or repellents, but apart from some natural mosquito repellents, little commercial success has ensued for plant substances that modify arthropod behavior. Several factors appear to limit the success of botanicals, most notably regulatory barriers and the availability of competing products (newer synthetics, fermentation products, microbials) that are cost-effective and relatively safe compared with their predecessors. In the context of agricultural pest management, botanical insecticides are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and postharvest protection of food in developing countries.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Kesavan.Subaharan@icar.gov.in
                Journal
                Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
                Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
                Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0944-1344
                1614-7499
                8 May 2021
                : 1-14
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.506026.7, ISNI 0000 0004 1755 945X, Division of Germplasm Conservation and Utilization, , ICAR—National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, ; Bengaluru, 560024 India
                [2 ]GRID grid.413039.c, ISNI 0000 0001 0805 7368, DOS in Zoology, , University of Mysore, ; Mysore, 570006 India
                [3 ]GRID grid.510243.1, ISNI 0000 0004 0501 1024, National Centre for Biological Sciences—TIFR, ; Bengaluru, 560065 India
                [4 ]GRID grid.411780.b, ISNI 0000 0001 0683 3327, Division of Biopesticides and Environmental Toxicology, Sri Paramakalyani Centre for Excellence in Environmental Sciences, , Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, ; Alwarkurichi, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu 627412 India
                [5 ]Present Address: CSIR- Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Regional Centre, Bengaluru, 560065 India
                Author notes

                Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues

                Article
                14282
                10.1007/s11356-021-14282-x
                8105153
                33963471
                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001407, Department of Biotechnology , Ministry of Science and Technology;
                Award ID: BT/PR10174/NNT/28/716/2013
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001503, Indian Council of Agricultural Research;
                Award ID: MI
                Categories
                Research Article

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