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      Pathophysiological roles of microvascular alterations in pulmonary inflammatory diseases: possible implications of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and CXC chemokines

      International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

      Dove Medical Press

      asthma, copd, pulmonary microvessels, corticosteroid, cxc chemokines, tnf-α

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          Abstract

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchial asthma are common respiratory diseases that are caused by chronic inflammation of the airways. Although these diseases are mediated by substantially distinct immunological reactions, especially in mild cases, they both show increased numbers of neutrophils, increased production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and poor responses to corticosteroids, particularly in patients with severe diseases. These immunological alterations may contribute strongly to airway structural changes, commonly referred to as airway remodeling. Microvascular alterations, a component of airway remodeling and caused by chronic inflammation, are observed and appear to be clinically involved in both diseases. It has been well established that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays important roles in the airway microvascular alterations in mild and moderate cases of both diseases, but any role that VEGF might play in severe cases of these diseases remains unclear. Here, we review recent research findings, including our own data, and discuss the possibility that TNF-α and its associated CXC chemokines play roles in microvascular alterations that are even more crucial than those of VEGF in patients with severe COPD or asthma.

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          Most cited references 74

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              Community study of role of viral infections in exacerbations of asthma in 9-11 year old children.

              To study the association between upper and lower respiratory viral infections and acute exacerbations of asthma in schoolchildren in the community. Community based 13 month longitudinal study using diary card respiratory symptom and peak expiratory flow monitoring to allow early sampling for viruses. 108 Children aged 9-11 years who had reported wheeze or cough, or both, in a questionnaire. Southampton and surrounding community. Upper and lower respiratory viral infections detected by polymerase chain reaction or conventional methods, reported exacerbations of asthma, computer identified episodes of respiratory tract symptoms or peak flow reductions. Viruses were detected in 80% of reported episodes of reduced peak expiratory flow, 80% of reported episodes of wheeze, and in 85% of reported episodes of upper respiratory symptoms, cough, wheeze, and a fall in peak expiratory flow. The median duration of reported falls in peak expiratory flow was 14 days, and the median maximum fall in peak expiratory flow was 81 l/min. The most commonly identified virus type was rhinovirus. This study supports the hypothesis that upper respiratory viral infections are associated with 80-85% of asthma exacerbations in school age children.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2650587
                19281078

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

                Respiratory medicine

                asthma, copd, pulmonary microvessels, corticosteroid, cxc chemokines, tnf-α

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