Extensive research into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers was performed in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Most prior research into CSF biomarkers has been one-point observation.
To investigate dynamic changes in CSF biomarkers during routine tap test in iNPH patients.
We analyzed CSF concentrations of tau, amyloid-β (Aβ) 42 and 40, and leucine rich α-2-glycoprotein (LRG) in 88 consecutive potential iNPH patients who received a tap test. We collected two-point lumbar CSF separately at the first 1 ml (First Drip (FD)) and at the last 1 ml (Last Drip (LD)) during the tap test and 9 patients who went on to receive ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery each provided 1 ml of ventricular CSF (VCSF).
Tau concentrations were significantly elevated in LD and VCSF compared to FD (LD/FD = 1.22, p = 0.003, VCSF/FD = 2.76, p = 0.02). Conversely, Aβ 42 (LD/FD = 0.80, p < 0.001, VCSF/FD = 0.38, p = 0.03) and LRG (LD/FD = 0.74, p < 0.001, VCSF/FD = 0.09, p = 0.002) concentrations were significantly reduced in LD and VCSF compared to FD. Gait responses to the tap test and changes in cognitive function in response to shunt were closely associated with LD concentrations of tau ( p = 0.02) and LRG ( p = 0.04), respectively.