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      Uptake and Intracellular Fate of Engineered Nanoparticles in Mammalian Cells: Capabilities and Limitations of Transmission Electron Microscopy-Polymer-Based Nanoparticles

      1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2
      Advanced Materials
      Wiley

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          Principles of nanoparticle design for overcoming biological barriers to drug delivery.

          Biological barriers to drug transport prevent successful accumulation of nanotherapeutics specifically at diseased sites, limiting efficacious responses in disease processes ranging from cancer to inflammation. Although substantial research efforts have aimed to incorporate multiple functionalities and moieties within the overall nanoparticle design, many of these strategies fail to adequately address these barriers. Obstacles, such as nonspecific distribution and inadequate accumulation of therapeutics, remain formidable challenges to drug developers. A reimagining of conventional nanoparticles is needed to successfully negotiate these impediments to drug delivery. Site-specific delivery of therapeutics will remain a distant reality unless nanocarrier design takes into account the majority, if not all, of the biological barriers that a particle encounters upon intravenous administration. By successively addressing each of these barriers, innovative design features can be rationally incorporated that will create a new generation of nanotherapeutics, realizing a paradigmatic shift in nanoparticle-based drug delivery.
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            Far-field optical nanoscopy.

            In 1873, Ernst Abbe discovered what was to become a well-known paradigm: the inability of a lens-based optical microscope to discern details that are closer together than half of the wavelength of light. However, for its most popular imaging mode, fluorescence microscopy, the diffraction barrier is crumbling. Here, I discuss the physical concepts that have pushed fluorescence microscopy to the nanoscale, once the prerogative of electron and scanning probe microscopes. Initial applications indicate that emergent far-field optical nanoscopy will have a strong impact in the life sciences and in other areas benefiting from nanoscale visualization.
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              Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) as Biodegradable Controlled Drug Delivery Carrier.

              In past two decades poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) has been among the most attractive polymeric candidates used to fabricate devices for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. PLGA is biocompatible and biodegradable, exhibits a wide range of erosion times, has tunable mechanical properties and most importantly, is a FDA approved polymer. In particular, PLGA has been extensively studied for the development of devices for controlled delivery of small molecule drugs, proteins and other macromolecules in commercial use and in research. This manuscript describes the various fabrication techniques for these devices and the factors affecting their degradation and drug release.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Advanced Materials
                Adv. Mater.
                Wiley
                09359648
                March 2018
                March 2018
                January 11 2018
                : 30
                : 9
                : 1703704
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC); Friedrich Schiller University Jena; Humboldtstr. 10 07743 Jena Germany
                [2 ]Jena Center of Soft Matter (JCSM); Friedrich Schiller University Jena; Philosophenweg 7 07743 Jena Germany
                Article
                10.1002/adma.201703704
                ea65a2b3-ee4c-43d7-804d-affe027f5a5c
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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