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      Genetic association between the Pfk13 gene mutation and artemisinin resistance phenotype in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Yunnan Province, China

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          Abstract

          Background

          The problem of anti-malarial drug resistance is a long-term challenge faced by malaria control in Yunnan Province. Recently, the detection rates of chloroquine-resistant molecular markers ( Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant transporter, Pfcrt) and artemisinin-resistant molecular markers ( P. falciparum kelch13 gene, ork13) were 85% and 35%, respectively. To understand the association of k13 gene mutation with artemisinin resistance in falciparum malaria cases, the difference in k13 gene differentiation between two populations and artemisinin resistance phenotype on falciparum malaria cases in Myanmar were analysed in this study.

          Methods

          This research involved all of falciparum malaria cases diagnosed continuously in Yunnan Province from 2013 to 2015 and some of falciparum malaria cases found in Lazar, Myanmar. Blood samples were taken from the former group for molecular epidemiological analysis of k13 gene mutations, and artemisinin resistance phenotypes of P. falciparum were observed in the latter group using the in vivo testing method recommended by the World Health Organization. Nested PCR was used to amplify the propeller domain of the k13 gene in P. falciparum, followed by sequencing.

          Results

          A total of 202 blood samples were collected from Yunnan Province and 382 blood samples were collected from falciparum malaria cases in Myanmar. 49 of 382 Myanmar cases were in vivo tested for artesunate resistance phenotype through full treatment course observation. At the same time, all the blood samples were screened for k13 gene mutation of P. falciparum. The genetic diversity of k13 was higher in the Plasmodium isolates from Yunnan Province than those from Myanmar cases. The genetic differentiation index of the two populations was 0.0410, where the intra- and inter-group variations were 95.9% and 4.1%, respectively. The odds ratio of artemisinin resistance phenotype and mutation at the locus 446 in k13 gene in Myanmar cases was 1.640, while the value was 1.840 based on the estimations of the mutations in the 12 loci.

          Conclusion

          Although the Plasmodium isolates from Yunnan Province and those from Myanmar were collected from different sites, they still belong to the same geographical population. It is, therefore, reasonable to contrast the artemisinin resistance status of the Plasmodium population from Myanmar with the Plasmodium population from Yunnan Province. As a result, based on the molecular epidemiological investigation on k13 mutations of Plasmodium isolates in Yunnan Province and the determination of the artemisinin resistance on falciparum malaria cases in Myanmar, the positively genetic correlated was found between the k13 locus mutations with artemisinin resistance phenotype. This provides a basis for further monitoring the artemisinin resistance by detection some molecular markers in k13 gene of Plasmodium in Yunnan Province.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria on the western border of Thailand: a longitudinal study

          Summary Background Artemisinin-resistant falciparum malaria has arisen in western Cambodia. A concerted international effort is underway to contain artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, but containment strategies are dependent on whether resistance has emerged elsewhere. We aimed to establish whether artemisinin resistance has spread or emerged on the Thailand–Myanmar (Burma) border. Methods In malaria clinics located along the northwestern border of Thailand, we measured six hourly parasite counts in patients with uncomplicated hyperparasitaemic falciparum malaria (≥4% infected red blood cells) who had been given various oral artesunate-containing regimens since 2001. Parasite clearance half-lives were estimated and parasites were genotyped for 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Findings 3202 patients were studied between 2001 and 2010. Parasite clearance half-lives lengthened from a geometric mean of 2·6 h (95% CI 2·5–2·7) in 2001, to 3·7 h (3·6–3·8) in 2010, compared with a mean of 5·5 h (5·2–5·9) in 119 patients in western Cambodia measured between 2007 and 2010. The proportion of slow-clearing infections (half-life ≥6·2 h) increased from 0·6% in 2001, to 20% in 2010, compared with 42% in western Cambodia between 2007 and 2010. Of 1583 infections genotyped, 148 multilocus parasite genotypes were identified, each of which infected between two and 13 patients. The proportion of variation in parasite clearance attributable to parasite genetics increased from 30% between 2001 and 2004, to 66% between 2007 and 2010. Interpretation Genetically determined artemisinin resistance in P falciparum emerged along the Thailand–Myanmar border at least 8 years ago and has since increased substantially. At this rate of increase, resistance will reach rates reported in western Cambodia in 2–6 years. Funding The Wellcome Trust and National Institutes of Health.
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            A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010

            Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR) and the basic reproductive number (PfR). Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG) prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfR c of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The maps presented here contribute to a rational basis for control and elimination decisions and can serve as a baseline assessment as the global health community looks ahead to the next series of milestones targeted at 2015.
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              Genetic diversity and chloroquine selective sweeps in Plasmodium falciparum.

              Widespread use of antimalarial agents can profoundly influence the evolution of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Recent selective sweeps for drug-resistant genotypes may have restricted the genetic diversity of this parasite, resembling effects attributed in current debates to a historic population bottleneck. Chloroquine-resistant (CQR) parasites were initially reported about 45 years ago from two foci in southeast Asia and South America, but the number of CQR founder mutations and the impact of chlorquine on parasite genomes worldwide have been difficult to evaluate. Using 342 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers from a genetic map, here we show that the level of genetic diversity varies substantially among different regions of the parasite genome, revealing extensive linkage disequilibrium surrounding the key CQR gene pfcrt and at least four CQR founder events. This disequilibrium and its decay rate in the pfcrt-flanking region are consistent with strong directional selective sweeps occurring over only approximately 20-80 sexual generations, especially a single resistant pfcrt haplotype spreading to very high frequencies throughout most of Asia and Africa. The presence of linkage disequilibrium provides a basis for mapping genes under drug selection in P. falciparum.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                luxidongying@126.com
                Journal
                Malar J
                Malar. J
                Malaria Journal
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2875
                18 December 2018
                18 December 2018
                2018
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases Control, Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory, Yunnan Centre of Malaria Research, Pu’er, 665000 China
                [2 ]Hubei International Travel Healthcare Centre, Wuhan, 430000 China
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8803 2373, GRID grid.198530.6, National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, ; Shanghai, 200025 China
                Article
                2619
                10.1186/s12936-018-2619-4
                6299582
                30563521
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100008982, National Science Foundation;
                Award ID: 81220108019
                Award ID: 81660559
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100007471, Applied Basic Research Foundation of Yunnan Province;
                Award ID: 2017FD007
                Award ID: 2017FD190
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2018

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