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      How urbanization affects the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases

      , MD *

      Infection Ecology & Epidemiology

      Co-Action Publishing

      urban infections, urbanization, zoonotic diseases, emerging infections

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          Abstract

          The world is becoming more urban every day, and the process has been ongoing since the industrial revolution in the 18th century. The United Nations now estimates that 3.9 billion people live in urban centres. The rapid influx of residents is however not universal and the developed countries are already urban, but the big rise in urban population in the next 30 years is expected to be in Asia and Africa. Urbanization leads to many challenges for global health and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. New megacities can be incubators for new epidemics, and zoonotic diseases can spread in a more rapid manner and become worldwide threats. Adequate city planning and surveillance can be powerful tools to improve the global health and decrease the burden of communicable diseases.

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          Most cited references 70

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          Dengue, Urbanization and Globalization: The Unholy Trinity of the 21st Century

          Dengue is the most important arboviral disease of humans with over half of the world’s population living in areas of risk. The frequency and magnitude of epidemic dengue have increased dramatically in the past 40 years as the viruses and the mosquito vectors have both expanded geographically in the tropical regions of the world. There are many factors that have contributed to this emergence of epidemic dengue, but only three have been the principal drivers: 1) urbanization, 2) globalization and 3) lack of effective mosquito control. The dengue viruses have fully adapted to a human-Aedes aegypti-human transmission cycle, in the large urban centers of the tropics, where crowded human populations live in intimate association with equally large mosquito populations. This setting provides the ideal home for maintenance of the viruses and the periodic generation of epidemic strains. These cities all have modern airports through which 10s of millions of passengers pass each year, providing the ideal mechanism for transportation of viruses to new cities, regions and continents where there is little or no effective mosquito control. The result is epidemic dengue. This paper discusses this unholy trinity of drivers, along with disease burden, prevention and control and prospects for the future.
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            Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa.

            Many attempts have been made to quantify Africa's malaria burden but none has addressed how urbanization will affect disease transmission and outcome, and therefore mortality and morbidity estimates. In 2003, 39% of Africa's 850 million people lived in urban settings; by 2030, 54% of Africans are expected to do so. We present the results of a series of entomological, parasitological and behavioural meta-analyses of studies that have investigated the effect of urbanization on malaria in Africa. We describe the effect of urbanization on both the impact of malaria transmission and the concomitant improvements in access to preventative and curative measures. Using these data, we have recalculated estimates of populations at risk of malaria and the resulting mortality. We find there were 1,068,505 malaria deaths in Africa in 2000 - a modest 6.7% reduction over previous iterations. The public-health implications of these findings and revised estimates are discussed.
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              Soil-transmitted helminth infections: updating the global picture.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Infect Ecol Epidemiol
                Infect Ecol Epidemiol
                IEE
                Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
                Co-Action Publishing
                2000-8686
                24 June 2015
                2015
                : 5
                Affiliations
                Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: Carl-Johan Neiderud, Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden, Email: carl-johan.neiderud@ 123456akademiska.se

                Responsible Editor: Tanja Strand, Uppsala University, Sweden.

                Article
                27060
                10.3402/iee.v5.27060
                4481042
                26112265
                © 2015 Carl-Johan Neiderud

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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