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      Glomerular Filtration Rate as a Predictor of Outcome in Acute Coronary Syndrome Complicated by Atrial Fibrillation

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          Abstract

          The close relationship between kidney and heart is well known. Cardiovascular impairment contributes to the worsening of renal function and kidney failure worsens cardiovascular health. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent issue in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and several studies have demonstrated that AF impacts negatively on their quality of life and outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms leading to the progression of CKD, new-onset AF and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a key issue. The evaluation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) could make the difference in this equilibrium and suggests specific strategies in the treatment of the population at major risk of cardiovascular events. This intriguing connection paves the way for necessary further investigations.

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          Most cited references 27

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          The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system: from physiology to the pathobiology of hypertension and kidney disease.

          In recent years, the focus of interest on the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathophysiology of hypertension and organ injury has changed to a major emphasis on the role of the local RAS in specific tissues. In the kidney, all of the RAS components are present and intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) is formed by independent multiple mechanisms. Proximal tubular angiotensinogen, collecting duct renin, and tubular angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors are positively augmented by intrarenal Ang II. In addition to the classic RAS pathways, prorenin receptors and chymase are also involved in local Ang II formation in the kidney. Moreover, circulating Ang II is actively internalized into proximal tubular cells by AT1 receptor-dependent mechanisms. Consequently, Ang II is compartmentalized in the renal interstitial fluid and the proximal tubular compartments with much higher concentrations than those existing in the circulation. Recent evidence has also revealed that inappropriate activation of the intrarenal RAS is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal injury. Thus, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms responsible for independent regulation of the intrarenal RAS. In this review, we will briefly summarize our current understanding of independent regulation of the intrarenal RAS and discuss how inappropriate activation of this system contributes to the development and maintenance of hypertension and renal injury. We will also discuss the impact of antihypertensive agents in preventing the progressive increases in the intrarenal RAS during the development of hypertension and renal injury.
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            Atrial fibrillation in hemodialysis patients: clinical features and associations with anticoagulant therapy.

            Using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), we determined incidence, prevalence, and outcomes among hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. Cox proportional hazards models, to identify associations with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation and clinical outcomes, were stratified by country and study phase and adjusted for descriptive characteristics and comorbidities. Of 17,513 randomly sampled patients, 2188 had preexisting atrial fibrillation, with wide variation in prevalence across countries. Advanced age, non-black race, higher facility mean dialysate calcium, prosthetic heart valves, and valvular heart disease were associated with higher risk of new atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation at study enrollment was positively associated with all-cause mortality and stroke. The CHADS2 score identified approximately equal-size groups of hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation with low (less than 2) and higher risk (more than 4) for subsequent strokes on a per 100 patient-year basis. Among patients with atrial fibrillation, warfarin use was associated with a significantly higher stroke risk, particularly in those over 75 years of age. Our study shows that atrial fibrillation is common and associated with elevated risk of adverse clinical outcomes, and this risk is even higher among elderly patients prescribed warfarin. The effectiveness and safety of warfarin in hemodialysis patients require additional investigation.
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              Atrial fibrillation and risks of cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and death: systematic review and meta-analysis.

              To quantify the association between atrial fibrillation and cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and death.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                jcm
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                MDPI
                2077-0383
                14 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 9
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Unit of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy; dsantoro@ 123456unime.it (D.S.); guidogembillo@ 123456live.it (G.G.)
                [2 ]Unit of Cardiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: giuseppe.ando@ 123456unime.it ; Tel.: +39-090-221-3458
                Article
                jcm-09-01466
                10.3390/jcm9051466
                7290385
                32422873
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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