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      Recent advances on sources and industrial applications of lipases : Biotechnol. Prog., 2017, Vol. 00, No. 00

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          Lipases are the industrially important biocatalysts, which are envisioned to have tremendous applications in the manufacture of a wide range of products. Their unique properties such as better stability, selectivity and substrate specificity position them as the most expansively used industrial enzymes. The research on production and applications of lipases is ever growing and there exists a need to have a latest review on the research findings of lipases. The present review aims at giving the latest and broadest overall picture of research and development on lipases by including the current studies and progressions not only in the diverse industrial application fields of lipases, but also with regard to its structure, classification and sources. Also, a special emphasis has been made on the aspects such as process optimization, modeling, and design that are very critical for further scale-up and industrial implementation. The detailed tabulations provided in each section, which are prepared by the exhaustive review of current literature covering the various aspects of lipase including its production and applications along with example case studies, will serve as the comprehensive source of current advancements in lipase research. This review will be very useful for the researchers from both industry as well as academia in promoting lipolysis as the most promising approaches to intensified, greener and sustainable processes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:5-28, 2018.

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          FAT SIGNALS - Lipases and Lipolysis in Lipid Metabolism and Signaling

          Lipolysis is defined as the catabolism of triacylglycerols stored in cellular lipid droplets. Recent discoveries of essential lipolytic enzymes and characterization of numerous regulatory proteins and mechanisms have fundamentally changed our perception of lipolysis and its impact on cellular metabolism. New findings that lipolytic products and intermediates participate in cellular signaling processes and that “lipolytic signaling” is particularly important in many nonadipose tissues unveil a previously underappreciated aspect of lipolysis, which may be relevant for human disease.
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            Lipases for biotechnology.

            Lipases constitute the most important group of biocatalysts for biotechnological applications. The high-level production of microbial lipases requires not only the efficient overexpression of the corresponding genes but also a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing their folding and secretion. The optimisation of industrially relevant lipase properties can be achieved by directed evolution. Furthermore, novel biotechnological applications have been successfully established using lipases for the synthesis of biopolymers and biodiesel, the production of enantiopure pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and flavour compounds.
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              Immobilized Pseudomonas cepacia lipase for biodiesel fuel production from soybean oil.

              Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and ethanol was studied. Of the nine lipases that were tested in the initial screening, lipase PS from Pseudomonas cepacia resulted in the highest yield of alkyl esters. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was further investigated in immobilized form within a chemically inert, hydrophobic sol-gel support. The gel-entrapped lipase was prepared by polycondensation of hydrolyzed tetramethoxysilane and iso-butyltrimethoxysilane. Using the immobilized lipase PS, the effects of water and alcohol concentration, enzyme loading, enzyme thermal stability, and temperature in the transesterification reaction were investigated. The optimal conditions for processing 10 g of soybean oil were: 35 degrees C, 1:7.5 oil/methanol molar ratio, 0.5 g water and 475 mg lipase for the reactions with methanol, and 35 degrees C, 1:15.2 oil/ethanol molar ratio, 0.3 g water, 475 mg lipase for the reactions with ethanol. Subject to the optimal conditions, methyl and ethyl esters formation of 67 and 65 mol% in 1h of reaction were obtained for the immobilized enzyme reactions. Upon the reaction with the immobilized lipase, the triglycerides reached negligible levels after the first 30 min of the reaction and the immobilized lipase was consistently more active than the free enzyme. The immobilized lipase also proved to be stable and lost little activity when was subjected to repeated uses.

                Author and article information

                Biotechnology Progress
                Biotechnol Progress
                January 2018
                January 2018
                December 04 2017
                : 34
                : 1
                : 5-28
                [1 ]Chemical Engineering Div.; CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology; Hyderabad 500007 India
                [2 ]Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR); Chennai 600 113 India
                [3 ]Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Div.; CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology; Hyderabad 500007 India
                © 2017


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