10
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Viral bronchiolitis

      , Dr, MD a , b , * , , MD c , d , , Prof, MD e , f

      Lancet (London, England)

      Elsevier Ltd.

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Summary

          Viral bronchiolitis is a common clinical syndrome affecting infants and young children. Concern about its associated morbidity and cost has led to a large body of research that has been summarised in systematic reviews and integrated into clinical practice guidelines in several countries. The evidence and guideline recommendations consistently support a clinical diagnosis with the limited role for diagnostic testing for children presenting with the typical clinical syndrome of viral upper respiratory infection progressing to the lower respiratory tract. Management is largely supportive, focusing on maintaining oxygenation and hydration of the patient. Evidence suggests no benefit from bronchodilator or corticosteroid use in infants with a first episode of bronchiolitis. Evidence for other treatments such as hypertonic saline is evolving but not clearly defined yet. For infants with severe disease, the insufficient available data suggest a role for high-flow nasal cannula and continuous positive airway pressure use in a monitored setting to prevent respiratory failure.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 105

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Respiratory syncytial virus in early life and risk of wheeze and allergy by age 13 years.

          The relation between lower respiratory tract illnesses in early life caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the subsequent development of wheezing and atopy in childhood is not well understood. We studied this relation in children who had lower respiratory tract illnesses that occurred before 3 years of age. Children were enrolled at birth and cases of lower respiratory tract illness were ascertained by a physician. Viral tests were done for specimens collected at the time of the illness. Children were classified into five groups according to type and cause of lower respiratory tract illness. Children were then followed prospectively up to age 13, and we measured frequency of wheezing, pulmonary function, and atopic status (allergy skin-prick tests, serum IgE concentrations). RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses were associated with an increased risk of infrequent wheeze (odds ratio 3.2 [95% CI 2.0-5.0], p < 0.001), and an increased risk of frequent wheeze (4.3 [2.2-8.7], p < or = 0.001) by age 6. Risk decreased markedly with age and was not significant by age 13. There was no association between RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses and subsequent atopic status. RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses were associated with significantly lower measurements of forced expiratory volume (2.11 [2.05-2.15], p < or = 0.001) when compared with those of children with no lower respiratory tract illnesses, but there was no difference in forced expiratory volume after inhalation of salbutamol. RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses in early childhood are an independent risk factor for the subsequent development of wheezing up to age 11 years but not at age 13. This association is not caused by an increased risk of allergic sensitisation.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Asthma and allergy patterns over 18 years after severe RSV bronchiolitis in the first year of life.

            An increased prevalence of asthma/recurrent wheeze (RW), clinical allergy and allergic sensitisation up to age 13 years has previously been reported in subjects hospitalised with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in their first year of life compared with matched controls. A study was undertaken to examine whether these features persist into early adulthood, to report longitudinal wheeze and allergy patterns, and to see how large and small airway function relates to RSV infection and asthma. Follow-up at age 18 years was performed in 46 of 47 subjects with RSV and 92 of 93 controls. Assessments included questionnaire, clinical examination, skin prick tests, serum IgE antibodies to inhaled allergens, blood eosinophils, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), spirometry, multiple breath washout (lung clearance index, LCI) and dry air hyperventilation challenge. Increased prevalence of asthma/RW (39% vs 9%), clinical allergy (43% vs 17%) and sensitisation to perennial allergens (41% vs 14%) were present at age 18 in the RSV cohort compared with controls. Persistent/relapsing wheeze associated with early allergic sensitisation predominated in the RSV cohort compared with controls (30% vs 1%). Spirometric function was reduced in subjects with RSV with or without current asthma, but not in asthmatic controls. LCI was linked only to current asthma, airway hyperresponsiveness and FeNO. Severe early RSV bronchiolitis is associated with an increased prevalence of allergic asthma persisting into early adulthood. Small airway dysfunction (LCI) is related to current asthma and airway inflammation but not to RSV bronchiolitis. Reduced spirometry after RSV may reflect airway remodelling.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Dual Infection of Infants by Human Metapneumovirus and Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Is Strongly Associated with Severe Bronchiolitis

              Abstract The association between severe bronchiolitis and dual infection by human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) was investigated in !2-year-old infants with bronchiolitis who were admitted to the hospital during the 2001–2002 winter season. hMPV in nasopharyngeal aspirate and/or cells and fluid collected by nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). hRSV was detected in nasopharyngeal aspirate and/or cells and fluid collected by nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage by enzyme immunoassay, tissue culture, and RT-PCR. Dual infection with hMPV and hRSV confers a 10-fold increase in relative risk (RR) of admission to a pediatric intensive-care unit for mechanical ventilation (RR, 10.99 [95% confidence interval, 5.0–24.12]; P < .001, by Fisher exact test). Dual infection by hMPV and hRSV is associated with severe bronchiolitis.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Lancet
                Lancet
                Lancet (London, England)
                Elsevier Ltd.
                0140-6736
                1474-547X
                20 August 2016
                14-20 January 2017
                20 August 2016
                : 389
                : 10065
                : 211-224
                Affiliations
                [a ]Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
                [b ]Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA
                [c ]Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada
                [d ]Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
                [e ]Division of Emergency Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                [f ]Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: Dr Todd A Florin, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA todd.florin@ 123456cchmc.org
                Article
                S0140-6736(16)30951-5
                10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30951-5
                6765220
                27549684
                © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                Categories
                Article

                Medicine

                Comments

                Comment on this article