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      Nonrelated Living-Donor Kidney Transplantation: Medical and Ethical Aspects

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          Several patients with end-stage renal disease went to Bombay for renal transplantation from nonrelated living donors and then returned to Turkey for posttransplantation follow-up. The aims of this study are to evaluate the long-term results of renal transplantation from nonrelated living donors in Turkish patients with end-stage renal disease and to discuss the ethical and social aspects of nonrelated kidney donation. One hundred and twenty-seven patients (89 males, 38 females; mean age 38.1, range 17–63 years) were investigated retrospectively. None of the patients went to Bombay on our advice. All transplantations were performed between 1991 and 1995. The mean follow-up period after transplantation was 34.2 (range 1–68) months. Graft survival rates were 85, 83, and 57% after 3 months and 1 and 5 years, respectively. Patient survival rates were 94, 93, and 92% after 3 months and 1 and 5 years, respectively. Seven patients died within the first 3 months after the transplantation. Surgical problems, infections, acute rejection, ciclosporin nephrotoxicity, and hepatic problems were common complications. We conclude that medical and surgical complications occur frequently in paid kidney transplantation, but most of these complications can be prevented by adequate preoperative management, and precautionary measures should be taken to prevent commercialization of renal transplantation before the spread of emotionally related living kidney donation.

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          High survival rates of kidney transplants from spousal and living unrelated donors.

          In the United States, increasing numbers of persons are donating kidneys to their spouses. Despite greater histoincompatibility, the survival rates of these kidneys are higher than those of cadaveric kidneys. We examined the factors influencing the high survival rates of spousal-donor kidneys. Kidney-transplant data from the United Network for Organ Sharing Renal Transplant Registry were used to calculate graft-survival rates with Kaplan-Meier analysis. The three-year survival rates were 85 percent for kidneys from 368 spouses, 81 percent for kidneys from 129 living unrelated donors who were not married to the recipients, 82 percent for kidneys from 3368 parents, and 70 percent for 43,341 cadaveric kidneys. The three-year survival rate for wife-to-husband grafts was 87 percent, which was the same as for husband-to-wife grafts if the wife had never been pregnant. If the wife had previously been pregnant, the three-year graft-survival rate was 76 percent (P = 0.40). The three-year graft-survival rate among recipients of spousal grafts who did not receive transfusions preoperatively was 81 percent, as compared with 90 percent for recipients who received 1 to 10 transfusions preoperatively (P = 0.008). The superior survival rate of grafts from unrelated donors could not be attributed to better HLA matching, white race, younger donor age, or shorter cold-ischemia times, but might be explained by damage due to shock before removal in 10 percent of the cadaveric kidneys. Spouses are an important source of living-donor kidney grafts because, despite poor HLA matching, the graft-survival rate is similar to that of parental-donor kidneys. This high rate of survival is attributed to the fact that the kidneys were uniformly healthy.

            Author and article information

            S. Karger AG
            August 1998
            29 July 1998
            : 79
            : 4
            : 447-451
            Departments of Nephrology, a School of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, b Gülhane Medicine Academy, Ankara, c School of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, d School of Medicine, Erciyes University, Kayseri, e School of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, f School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, g School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
            45091 Nephron 1998;79:447–451
            © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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