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      PKM2 Aggravates Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Neuroinflammation via TLR4/MyD88/TRAF6 Signaling Pathway

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          Objectives: Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is the leading cause of ischemic stroke. Pyruvate Kinase isozymes M2 (PKM2), as a critical glycolytic enzyme during glycolysis, is involved in neuronal apoptosis in rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This study focused on functional investigation and potential molecular mechanism toward PKM2 in cerebral I/R injury. Methods: Cerebral I/R injury model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo or oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in vitro. qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of PKM2 in I/R injury models. The effects of PKM2 on I/R injury were determined via triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining and evaluation of neurological deficits. Cell Counting Kit-8 was employed to detect cell viability, and ELISA was conducted to detect pro-inflammatory cytokines. The underlying mechanism involved in regulation of PKM2 on I/R injury was investigated via ELISA and Western blot. Results: PKM2 was upregulated after cerebral I/R injury. Knockdown of PKM2 alleviated MCAO-induced infarction and neurological dysfunction. Moreover, PKM2 knockdown also alleviated OGD/R-induced neuronal cell injury and inflammatory response. Mechanistically, PKM2 knockdown-induced neuroprotection was accompanied by inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), reflected by inactivation of TLR4/MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88)/TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6) signaling pathway. Conclusions: Knockdown of PKM2 attenuated cerebral I/R injury through HMGB1-mediated TLR4/MyD88/TRAF6 expression change, providing a potential target for cerebral I/R injury treatment.

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          Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: therapeutic approaches

          Acute ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death in industrialized countries and the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. Despite advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, therapeutic options remain limited. Only recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for thrombolysis is currently approved for use in the treatment of this devastating disease. However, its use is limited by its short therapeutic window (three hours), complications derived essentially from the risk of hemorrhage, and the potential damage from reperfusion/ischemic injury. Two important pathophysiological mechanisms involved during ischemic stroke are oxidative stress and inflammation. Brain tissue is not well equipped with antioxidant defenses, so reactive oxygen species and other free radicals/oxidants, released by inflammatory cells, threaten tissue viability in the vicinity of the ischemic core. This review will discuss the molecular aspects of oxidative stress and inflammation in ischemic stroke and potential therapeutic strategies that target neuroinflammation and the innate immune system. Currently, little is known about endogenous counterregulatory immune mechanisms. However, recent studies showing that regulatory T cells are major cerebroprotective immunomodulators after stroke suggest that targeting the endogenous adaptive immune response may offer novel promising neuroprotectant therapies.
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            Acute ischemic stroke: overview of major experimental rodent models, pathophysiology, and therapy of focal cerebral ischemia.

            Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology. Animal modeling of ischemic stroke serves as an indispensable tool first to investigate mechanisms of ischemic cerebral injury, secondly to develop novel antiischemic regimens. Most of the stroke models are carried on rodents. Each model has its particular strengths and weaknesses. Mimicking all aspects of human stroke in one animal model is not possible since ischemic stroke is itself a very heterogeneous disorder. Experimental ischemic stroke models contribute to our understanding of the events occurring in ischemic and reperfused brain. Major approaches developed to treat acute ischemic stroke fall into two categories, thrombolysis and neuroprotection. Trials aimed to evaluate effectiveness of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in longer time windows with finer selection of patients based on magnetic resonance imaging tools and trials of novel recanalization methods are ongoing. Despite the failure of most neuroprotective drugs during the last two decades, there are good chances to soon have effective neuroprotectives with the help of improved preclinical testing and clinical trial design. In this article, we focus on various rodent animal models, pathogenic mechanisms, and promising therapeutic approaches of ischemic stroke.
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              The alternative splicing repressors hnRNP A1/A2 and PTB influence pyruvate kinase isoform expression and cell metabolism.

              Cancer cells preferentially metabolize glucose by aerobic glycolysis, characterized by increased lactate production. This distinctive metabolism involves expression of the embryonic M2 isozyme of pyruvate kinase, in contrast to the M1 isozyme normally expressed in differentiated cells, and it confers a proliferative advantage to tumor cells. The M1 and M2 pyruvate-kinase isozymes are expressed from a single gene through alternative splicing of a pair of mutually exclusive exons. We measured the expression of M1 and M2 mRNA and protein isoforms in mouse tissues, tumor cell lines, and during terminal differentiation of muscle cells, and show that alternative splicing regulation is sufficient to account for the levels of expressed protein isoforms. We further show that the M1-specific exon is actively repressed in cancer-cell lines--although some M1 mRNA is expressed in cell lines derived from brain tumors--and demonstrate that the related splicing repressors hnRNP A1 and A2, as well as the polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein PTB, contribute to this control. Downregulation of these splicing repressors in cancer-cell lines using shRNAs rescues M1 isoform expression and decreases the extent of lactate production. These findings extend the links between alternative splicing and cancer, and begin to define some of the factors responsible for the switch to aerobic glycolysis.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                May 2021
                19 March 2021
                : 28
                : 1
                : 29-37
                Department of Intensive Care Unit, Jinshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                *Jie Shen, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Jinshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, 1508 Longhang Road, Jinshan District, Shanghai 201508 (China), JieShendhj@163.com
                509710 Neuroimmunomodulation 2021;28:29–37
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Pages: 9
                Research Article


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