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      Discovery and genetic analysis of non-bitter Tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) with trace-rutinosidase activity

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          Abstract

          In a screening of about 500 lines of Tartary buckwheat, we identified lines that contained no detectable rutinosidase isozymes using an in-gel detection assay. We confirmed that seeds of these individuals had only a trace level of in-vitro rutinosidase activity. To investigate the heritability of the trace-rutinosidase characteristic, we analyzed the progeny of crosses between rutinosidase trace-lines, ‘f3g-162’, and the ‘Hokkai T8’. The F 2 progeny clearly divided into two groups: those with rutinosidase activity under 1.5 nkat/g seed (trace-rutinosidase) and those with activity over 400 nkat/g seed (normal rutinosidase). The segregation pattern of this trait in F 2 progeny exhibited 1 : 3 ratio (trace-rutinosidase : normal rutinosidase), suggesting that the trace-rutinosidase trait is conferred by a single recessive gene; rutinosidase-trace A ( rutA). In addition, sensory panelists evaluated the bitterness of flour from trace-rutinosidase individuals and did not detect bitterness, whereas flour from normal rutinosidase individuals was found to have strong bitterness. Although at least three bitter compounds have been reported in Tartary buckwheat seeds, our present findings indicate that rutin hydrolysis is the major contributing factor to bitterness. In addition, the trace-rutinosidase line identified here, ‘f3g-162’, is a promising material for generating a non-bitter Tartary buckwheat variety.

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          Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) as a source of dietary rutin and quercitrin.

          Two samples of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) from China and one from Luxembourg were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to reveal the possibilities of growing tartary buckwheat herb as a possible source of rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin. The content of rutin was determined as up to 3% dry weight (DW) in tartary buckwheat herb. Quercitrin values were in the range of 0.01-0.05% DW. Only traces of quercetin were detected in just some of the samples. Tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin (about 0.8-1.7% DW) than common buckwheat seeds (0.01% DW). Rutin and quercetin content in seeds depends on variety and growing conditions. Tartary buckwheat seeds contained traces of quercitrin and quercetin, which were not found in common buckwheat seeds.
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            Comparative evaluation of quercetin, isoquercetin and rutin as inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase.

            Three flavonoids from tartary buckwheat bran, namely, quercetin (Que), isoquercetin (Iso) and rutin (Rut), have been evaluated as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors by fluorescence spectroscopy and enzymatic kinetics and have also been compared with the market diabetes healer, acarbose. The results indicated that Que, Iso and Rut could bind alpha-glucosidase to form a new complex, which exhibited a strong static fluorescence quenching via nonradiation energy transfer, and an obvious blue shift of maximum fluorescence. The sequence of binding constants (K(A)) was Que > Iso > Rut, and the number of binding sites was one for all of the three cases. The thermodynamic parameters were obtained by calculations based on data of binding constants. They revealed that the main driving force of the above-mentioned interaction was hydrophobic. Enzymatic kinetics measurements showed that all of the three compounds were effective inhibitors against alpha-glucosidase. Inhibitory modes all belonged to a mixed type of noncompetitive and anticompetitive. The sequence of affinity (1/K(i)) was in accordance with the results of binding constants (K(A)). The concentrations which gave 50% inhibition (IC(50)) were 0.017 mmol*L(-1), 0.185 mmol*L(-1) and 0.196 mmol*L(-1), compared with acarbose's IC(50) (0.091 mmol*L(-1)); the dose of acarbose was almost five times of that of Que and half of that of Iso and Rut. Our results explained why the inhibition on alpha-glucosidase of tartary buckwheat bran extractive substance (mainly Rut) was much weaker than that of its hydrolysis product (a mixture of Que, Iso and Rut). This work would be significant for the development of more powerful antidiabetes drugs and efficacious utilization of tartary buckwheat, which has been proved as an acknowledged food in the diet of diabetic patients.
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              Eating buckwheat cookies is associated with the reduction in serum levels of myeloperoxidase and cholesterol: a double blind crossover study in day-care centre staffs.

              Buckwheat food is a good source of antioxidants, e.g. rutin, and other beneficial substances. Here we investigated the effects of the intake of common buckwheat (low rutin content) and tartary buckwheat cookies (high rutin content) on selected clinical markers. A double blind crossover study was performed among female day-care centre staffs (N = 62) from five day-care centres. Participants were randomly divided into two groups. The first group initially consumed four common buckwheat cookies per day (16.5 mg rutin equivalents/day) for two weeks, while the second group consumed four tartary buckwheat cookies per day (359.7 mg rutin equivalents/day). Then the groups switched their type of cookies and consumed them for another two weeks. We monitored selected clinical markers related to cardiovascular disease and lower airway inflammation, lung function, and subjective breathing difficulties in the staffs. Intake of tartary buckwheat cookies reduced the serum level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by a factor 0.84 (p = 0.02). When grouping the two types of buckwheat cookies together, there was a reduction of total serum cholesterol (p < 0.001) and HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001) during the study period, with improved lung vital capacity (p < 0.001). The degree of reduction in total and HDL cholesterol levels was similar in staffs with low and high body mass index (cut off 25). In conclusion, intake of tartary buckwheat cookies with high level of the antioxidant rutin may reduce levels of MPO, an indicator of inflammation. Moreover, intake of both types of buckwheat cookies may lower cholesterol levels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Breed Sci
                Breed. Sci
                Breeding Science
                Japanese Society of Breeding
                1344-7610
                1347-3735
                December 2014
                1 December 2014
                : 64
                : 4
                : 339-343
                Affiliations
                [1 ]NARO Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center , Hitsujigaoka, Toyohira, Sapporo, Hokkaido 062-8555, Japan
                [2 ]NARO Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center, Memuro Upland Farming Research Station , Shinsei, Memuro, Kasai, Hokkaido 082-0081, Japan
                Author notes
                [3]

                deceased

                [* ]Corresponding author (e-mail: tsuzu@ 123456affrc.go.jp )

                Communicated by R. Ohsawa

                Article
                64_339
                10.1270/jsbbs.64.339
                4267308
                eab82432-6485-4bcc-9e3b-f165f88836c8
                Copyright © 2014 by JAPANESE SOCIETY OF BREEDING

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 29 January 2014
                : 02 September 2014
                Categories
                Research Papers

                Animal agriculture
                tartary buckwheat,bitterness,rutinosidase,genetic resources,quality
                Animal agriculture
                tartary buckwheat, bitterness, rutinosidase, genetic resources, quality

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