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      Risankizumab: an anti-IL-23 antibody for the treatment of psoriasis

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          Abstract

          Risankizumab, a fully human IgG monoclonal antibody inhibitor of IL-23, is a therapeutic agent currently in late stage development for use in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. It is a biologic agent similar to guselkumab and tildrakizumab which targets IL-23 specifically, and has been primarily developed for use in moderate-to-severe psoriasis. USA-based pharmaceutical company Abbvie submitted it for a Biologics License Application to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in April 2018. Risankizumab is the result of a collaboration between the German company Boehringer Ingelheim and Abbvie, which together are leading the future development and commercialization of risankizumab globally. The results from Phase I to Phase III clinical trials of risankizumab show it is highly effective and its FDA-approval in 2018 is likely. In this article we provide an independent expert opinion on the efficacy and safety of risankizumab in psoriasis based on a full review of the literature.

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          Most cited references 5

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          A large-scale genetic association study confirms IL12B and leads to the identification of IL23R as psoriasis-risk genes.

          We performed a multitiered, case-control association study of psoriasis in three independent sample sets of white North American individuals (1,446 cases and 1,432 controls) with 25,215 genecentric single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and found a highly significant association with an IL12B 3'-untranslated-region SNP (rs3212227), confirming the results of a small Japanese study. This SNP was significant in all three sample sets (odds ratio [OR](common) 0.64, combined P [Pcomb]=7.85x10(-10)). A Monte Carlo simulation to address multiple testing suggests that this association is not a type I error. The coding regions of IL12B were resequenced in 96 individuals with psoriasis, and 30 additional IL12B-region SNPs were genotyped. Haplotypes were estimated, and genotype-conditioned analyses identified a second risk allele (rs6887695) located approximately 60 kb upstream of the IL12B coding region that exhibited association with psoriasis after adjustment for rs3212227. Together, these two SNPs mark a common IL12B risk haplotype (OR(common) 1.40, Pcomb=8.11x10(-9)) and a less frequent protective haplotype (OR(common) 0.58, Pcomb=5.65x10(-12)), which were statistically significant in all three studies. Since IL12B encodes the common IL-12p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, we individually genotyped 17 SNPs in the genes encoding the other chains of these cytokines (IL12A and IL23A) and their receptors (IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R). Haplotype analyses identified two IL23R missense SNPs that together mark a common psoriasis-associated haplotype in all three studies (OR(common) 1.44, Pcomb=3.13x10(-6)). Individuals homozygous for both the IL12B and the IL23R predisposing haplotypes have an increased risk of disease (OR(common) 1.66, Pcomb=1.33x10(-8)). These data, and the previous observation that administration of an antibody specific for the IL-12p40 subunit to patients with psoriasis is highly efficacious, suggest that these genes play a fundamental role in psoriasis pathogenesis.
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            Th17 cytokines stimulate CCL20 expression in keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo: implications for psoriasis pathogenesis.

            T helper (Th) 17 cells have recently been implicated in psoriasis pathogenesis, but mechanisms of how these cells traffic into inflamed skin are unknown. By immunostaining for interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-22, we show numerous cells present in psoriasis lesions that produce these cytokines. We next found that Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-22, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) markedly increased the expression of CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 20, a CC chemokine receptor (CCR)6 ligand, in human keratinocyte monolayer and raft cultures in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Lastly, we showed in mice that subcutaneous injection with recombinant IL-17A, IL-22, or TNF-alpha led to the upregulation of both CCL20 and CCR6 expression in skin as well as cutaneous T-cell infiltration. Taken together, these data show that Th17 cytokines stimulate CCL20 production in vitro and in vivo, and thus provide a potential explanation of how CCR6-positive Th17 cells maintain their continual presence in psoriasis through a positive chemotactic feedback loop.
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              Association between biologic therapies for chronic plaque psoriasis and cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

              Ustekinumab and briakinumab, monoclonal antibodies to the shared p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, have shown efficacy in treating chronic plaque psoriasis (CPP). Preliminary reports of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in psoriasis patients receiving anti-IL-12/23 agents have prompted concern. To evaluate a possible association between biologic therapies for CPP and MACEs via meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of anti-IL-12/23 (ustekinumab and briakinumab) agents and anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) agents (adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab) used in treating CPP were reviewed using the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Ovid MEDLINE from database inception to May 2011. The results of registered nonpublished completed studies were procured through abstract publications or poster presentations. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, monotherapy studies (with safety outcome data for MACE) of IL-12/23 antibodies and anti-TNF-α agents in adults. Studies of psoriatic arthritis were excluded. Two investigators independently searched data while 6 investigators reviewed the abstracted data. A total of 22 RCTs comprising 10 183 patients met the predefined inclusion criteria. The primary outcome measure was MACE, a composite end point of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, or cardiovascular death during the placebo-controlled phase of treatment in patients receiving at least 1 dose of study agent or placebo. Absolute risk differences were used as an effect measure. There was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity across the studies using the I(2) statistic (I(2) = 0), allowing for combination of trial results using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects method. During the placebo-controlled phases of the anti-IL-12/23 studies, 10 of 3179 patients receiving anti-IL-12/23 therapies experienced MACEs compared with zero events in 1474 patients receiving placebo (Mantel-Haenszel risk difference, 0.012 events/person-year; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.001 to 0.026; P =.12). In the anti-TNF-α trials, only 1 of 3858 patients receiving anti-TNF-α agents experienced a MACE compared with 1 of 1812 patients receiving placebo (Mantel-Haenszel risk difference, -0.0005 events/person-year; 95% CI, -0.010 to 0.009; P = .94). Compared with placebo, there was no significant difference in the rate of MACEs observed in patients receiving anti-IL-12/IL-23 antibodies or anti-TNF-α treatments. This study may have been underpowered to identify a significant difference.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                12 November 2018
                : 12
                : 3879-3883
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Dermatology, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA, amderm@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Bryan, TX, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Alan M Menter, Baylor University Medical Center, 3900 Junius Street, Dallas, TX 75204, USA, Tel +1 972 386 7546, Fax +1 972 715 1460, Email amderm@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-12-3879
                10.2147/DDDT.S167149
                6237136
                © 2018 Haugh et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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