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      Chromosome Duplication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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          Abstract

          The accurate and complete replication of genomic DNA is essential for all life. In eukaryotic cells, the assembly of the multi-enzyme replisomes that perform replication is divided into stages that occur at distinct phases of the cell cycle. Replicative DNA helicases are loaded around origins of DNA replication exclusively during G 1 phase. The loaded helicases are then activated during S phase and associate with the replicative DNA polymerases and other accessory proteins. The function of the resulting replisomes is monitored by checkpoint proteins that protect arrested replisomes and inhibit new initiation when replication is inhibited. The replisome also coordinates nucleosome disassembly, assembly, and the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Finally, when two replisomes converge they are disassembled. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have led the way in our understanding of these processes. Here, we review our increasingly molecular understanding of these events and their regulation.

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          Most cited references 372

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          RAD6-dependent DNA repair is linked to modification of PCNA by ubiquitin and SUMO.

          The RAD6 pathway is central to post-replicative DNA repair in eukaryotic cells; however, the machinery and its regulation remain poorly understood. Two principal elements of this pathway are the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes RAD6 and the MMS2-UBC13 heterodimer, which are recruited to chromatin by the RING-finger proteins RAD18 and RAD5, respectively. Here we show that UBC9, a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-conjugating enzyme, is also affiliated with this pathway and that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) -- a DNA-polymerase sliding clamp involved in DNA synthesis and repair -- is a substrate. PCNA is mono-ubiquitinated through RAD6 and RAD18, modified by lysine-63-linked multi-ubiquitination--which additionally requires MMS2, UBC13 and RAD5--and is conjugated to SUMO by UBC9. All three modifications affect the same lysine residue of PCNA, suggesting that they label PCNA for alternative functions. We demonstrate that these modifications differentially affect resistance to DNA damage, and that damage-induced PCNA ubiquitination is elementary for DNA repair and occurs at the same conserved residue in yeast and humans.
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            Cohesin: its roles and mechanisms.

            The cohesin complex is a major constituent of interphase and mitotic chromosomes. Apart from its role in mediating sister chromatid cohesion, it is also important for DNA double-strand-break repair and transcriptional control. The functions of cohesin are regulated by phosphorylation, acetylation, ATP hydrolysis, and site-specific proteolysis. Recent evidence suggests that cohesin acts as a novel topological device that traps chromosomal DNA within a large tripartite ring formed by its core subunits.
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              Functional dissection of protein complexes involved in yeast chromosome biology using a genetic interaction map.

              Defining the functional relationships between proteins is critical for understanding virtually all aspects of cell biology. Large-scale identification of protein complexes has provided one important step towards this goal; however, even knowledge of the stoichiometry, affinity and lifetime of every protein-protein interaction would not reveal the functional relationships between and within such complexes. Genetic interactions can provide functional information that is largely invisible to protein-protein interaction data sets. Here we present an epistatic miniarray profile (E-MAP) consisting of quantitative pairwise measurements of the genetic interactions between 743 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in various aspects of chromosome biology (including DNA replication/repair, chromatid segregation and transcriptional regulation). This E-MAP reveals that physical interactions fall into two well-represented classes distinguished by whether or not the individual proteins act coherently to carry out a common function. Thus, genetic interaction data make it possible to dissect functionally multi-protein complexes, including Mediator, and to organize distinct protein complexes into pathways. In one pathway defined here, we show that Rtt109 is the founding member of a novel class of histone acetyltransferases responsible for Asf1-dependent acetylation of histone H3 on lysine 56. This modification, in turn, enables a ubiquitin ligase complex containing the cullin Rtt101 to ensure genomic integrity during DNA replication.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genetics
                Genetics
                genetics
                genetics
                genetics
                Genetics
                Genetics Society of America
                0016-6731
                1943-2631
                July 2016
                27 June 2016
                27 June 2016
                : 203
                : 3
                : 1027-1067
                Affiliations
                [* ]Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
                []Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, Sir James Black Centre, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                [1 ]Corresponding authors: Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, Sir James Black Centre, School of Life Sciences, Dow St., University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, United Kingdom. E-mail: kpmlabib@ 123456dundee.ac.uk ; and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 68-630, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139. E-mail: spbell@ 123456mit.edu
                Article
                186452
                10.1534/genetics.115.186452
                4937469
                27384026
                eaf99afd-f9af-4e9a-8d83-c55328da57e4
                Copyright © 2016 Bell and Labib

                Available freely online through the author-supported open access option.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 12, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 398, Pages: 41
                Product
                Categories
                YeastBook
                Genome Organization and Integrity

                Genetics

                dna replication, cell cycle, chromatin, chromosome duplication, genome stability, yeastbook

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