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      PARP and PARG inhibitors in cancer treatment

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          Abstract

          In this review, Slade provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms and cellular consequences of PARP and PARG inhibition. The author also highlights the clinical performance of four PARP inhibitors used in cancer therapy (olaparib, rucaparib, niraparib, and talazoparib) and discusses the predictive biomarkers of inhibitor sensitivity and mechanisms of resistance as well as the means of overcoming them through combination therapy.

          Abstract

          Oxidative and replication stress underlie genomic instability of cancer cells. Amplifying genomic instability through radiotherapy and chemotherapy has been a powerful but nonselective means of killing cancer cells. Precision medicine has revolutionized cancer therapy by putting forth the concept of selective targeting of cancer cells. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors represent a successful example of precision medicine as the first drugs targeting DNA damage response to have entered the clinic. PARP inhibitors act through synthetic lethality with mutations in DNA repair genes and were approved for the treatment of BRCA mutated ovarian and breast cancer. PARP inhibitors destabilize replication forks through PARP DNA entrapment and induce cell death through replication stress-induced mitotic catastrophe. Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) exploit and exacerbate replication deficiencies of cancer cells and may complement PARP inhibitors in targeting a broad range of cancer types with different sources of genomic instability. Here I provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms and cellular consequences of PARP and PARG inhibition. I highlight clinical performance of four PARP inhibitors used in cancer therapy (olaparib, rucaparib, niraparib, and talazoparib) and discuss the predictive biomarkers of inhibitor sensitivity, mechanisms of resistance as well as the means of overcoming them through combination therapy.

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          Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation

          The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer

            All cancers are caused by somatic mutations. However, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here, we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, kataegis, is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer with potential implications for understanding of cancer etiology, prevention and therapy.
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              Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018

              Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, immunogenic cell death, cellular senescence, and mitotic catastrophe, we discuss the utility of neologisms that refer to highly specialized instances of these processes. The mission of the NCCD is to provide a widely accepted nomenclature on cell death in support of the continued development of the field.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genes Dev
                Genes Dev
                genesdev
                genesdev
                GAD
                Genes & Development
                Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
                0890-9369
                1549-5477
                1 March 2020
                1 March 2020
                : 34
                : 5-6
                : 360-394
                Affiliations
                Department of Biochemistry, Max Perutz Labs, Vienna Biocenter (VBC), University of Vienna, 1030 Vienna, Austria
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: dea.slade@ 123456univie.ac.at
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0052-5910
                Article
                8711660
                10.1101/gad.334516.119
                7050487
                32029455
                eaf9d5fa-9c56-431a-ac45-799fc77107d4
                © 2020 Slade; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

                This article, published in Genes & Development, is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution 4.0 International), as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                Page count
                Pages: 35
                Funding
                Funded by: Austrian Science Fund , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100002428;
                Award ID: P 31112-B28
                Categories
                1
                Special Section: Review

                poly(adp-ribose) polymerases,poly(adp-ribose) glycohydrolase,parp inhibitor,parg inhibitor,cancer therapy

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