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      Glutathione S-transferase genes in scallops and their diverse expression patterns after exposure to PST-producing dinoflagellates

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          Abstract

          The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of enzymes that function in cellular protection against toxic substances and oxidative stress. Bivalves could accumulate high concentration of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from harmful algae. To understand the possible involvement of GSTs in protecting bivalves during PST accumulation and metabolism, the GST genes were systemically analyzed in two cultured scallops, Azumapecten farreri and Mizuhopecten yessoensis, which were reported for PST deposition during harmful algae bloom. A total of 35 and 37 GSTs were identified in A. farreri ( AfGSTs) and M. yessoensis ( MyGSTs) genome, respectively, and the expansion of the sigma class from the cytosolic subfamily was observed. In both scallop species, sigma class GSTs showed higher expression than other members. The high GSTs expression was detected mainly during/after larvae stages and in the two most toxic organs, hepatopancreas and kidney. After ingesting PST-producing dinoflagellates, all the regulated AfGSTs in the hepatopancreas were from the sigma class, but with opposite regulation pattern between Alexandrium catenella and A. minutum exposure. In scallop kidneys, where PSTs transformed into higher toxicity, more AfGSTs were regulated than in the hepatopancreas, and most of them were from the sigma class, with similar regulation pattern between A. catenella and A. minutum exposure. In M. yessoensis exposed to A. catenella, MyGST-σ2 was the only up-regulated MyGST in both hepatopancreas and kidney. Our results suggested the possible diverse function of scallop GSTs and the importance of sigma class in the defense against PSTs, which would contribute to the adaptive evolution of scallops in marine environments.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          MLST
          Marine Life Science & Technology
          Springer (China )
          2096-6490
          2662-1746
          01 August 2020
          22 June 2020
          : 2
          : 3
          : 252-261
          Affiliations
          1Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding (Ocean University of China), Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266003, China
          2Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China
          Author notes
          *Corresponding author: Xiaoli Hu, E-mail: hxl707@ 123456ouc.edu.cn

          Jiarun Lou and Jie Cheng have contributed equally to this work.

          Article
          s42995-020-00050-2
          10.1007/s42995-020-00050-2
          © 2020 Ocean University of China
          Product
          Self URI (journal-page): https://www.springer.com/journal/42995
          Categories
          Research Paper

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