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      Viscoelastic and poroelastic mechanical characterization of hydrated gels

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          An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments

          The indentation load-displacement behavior of six materials tested with a Berkovich indenter has been carefully documented to establish an improved method for determining hardness and elastic modulus from indentation load-displacement data. The materials included fused silica, soda–lime glass, and single crystals of aluminum, tungsten, quartz, and sapphire. It is shown that the load–displacement curves during unloading in these materials are not linear, even in the initial stages, thereby suggesting that the flat punch approximation used so often in the analysis of unloading data is not entirely adequate. An analysis technique is presented that accounts for the curvature in the unloading data and provides a physically justifiable procedure for determining the depth which should be used in conjunction with the indenter shape function to establish the contact area at peak load. The hardnesses and elastic moduli of the six materials are computed using the analysis procedure and compared with values determined by independent means to assess the accuracy of the method. The results show that with good technique, moduli can be measured to within 5%.
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              Nanoindentation mapping of the mechanical properties of human molar tooth enamel.

              The mechanical behavior of dental enamel has been the subject of many investigations. Initial studies assumed that it was a more or less homogeneous material with uniform mechanical properties. Now it is generally recognized that the mechanical response of enamel depends upon location, chemical composition, and prism orientation. This study used nanoindentation to map out the properties of dental enamel over the axial cross-section of a maxillary second molar (M(2)). Local variations in mechanical characteristics were correlated with changes in chemical content and microstructure across the entire depth and span of a sample. Microprobe techniques were used to examine changes in chemical composition and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructure. The range of hardness (H) and Young's modulus (E) observed over an individual tooth was found to be far greater than previously reported. At the enamel surface H>6GPa and E>115GPa, while at the enamel-dentine junction H<3GPa and E<70GPa. These variations corresponded to the changes in chemistry, microstructure, and prism alignment but showed the strongest correlations with changes in the average chemistry of enamel. For example, the concentrations of the constituents of hydroxyapatite (P(2)O(5) and CaO) were highest at the hard occlusal surface and decreased on moving toward the softer enamel-dentine junction. Na(2)O and MgO showed the opposite trend. The mechanical properties of the enamel were also found to differ from the lingual to the buccal side of the molar. At the occlusal surface the enamel was harder and stiffer on the lingual side than on the buccal side. The interior enamel, however, was softer and more compliant on the lingual than on the buccal side, a variation that also correlated with differences in average chemistry and might be related to differences in function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                Journal of Materials Research
                J. Mater. Res.
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0884-2914
                2044-5326
                March 2009
                January 31 2011
                March 2009
                : 24
                : 03
                : 973-979
                Article
                10.1557/jmr.2009.0129
                eafcd15c-333f-42f7-b8e8-6fd897d5302c
                © 2009
                History

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