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      Recent Insights into CD4+Th Cell Differentiation in Malaria

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      The Journal of Immunology

      The American Association of Immunologists

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          Most cited references 75

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          Harnessing the plasticity of CD4(+) T cells to treat immune-mediated disease.

          CD4(+) T cells differentiate and acquire distinct functions to combat specific pathogens but can also adapt their functions in response to changing circumstances. Although this phenotypic plasticity can be potentially deleterious, driving immune pathology, it also provides important benefits that have led to its evolutionary preservation. Here, we review CD4(+) T cell plasticity by examining the molecular mechanisms that regulate it - from the extracellular cues that initiate and drive cells towards varying phenotypes, to the cytosolic signalling cascades that decipher these cues and transmit them into the cell and to the nucleus, where these signals imprint specific gene expression programmes. By understanding how this functional flexibility is achieved, we may open doors to new therapeutic approaches that harness this property of T cells.
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            Systems analysis of protective immune responses to RTS,S malaria vaccination in humans.

            RTS,S is an advanced malaria vaccine candidate and confers significant protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection in humans. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms driving vaccine immunity. Here, we applied a systems biology approach to study immune responses in subjects receiving three consecutive immunizations with RTS,S (RRR), or in those receiving two immunizations of RTS,S/AS01 following a primary immunization with adenovirus 35 (Ad35) (ARR) vector expressing circumsporozoite protein. Subsequent controlled human malaria challenge (CHMI) of the vaccinees with Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes, 3 wk after the final immunization, resulted in ∼50% protection in both groups of vaccinees. Circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific antibody titers, prechallenge, were associated with protection in the RRR group. In contrast, ARR-induced lower antibody responses, and protection was associated with polyfunctional CD4(+) T-cell responses 2 wk after priming with Ad35. Molecular signatures of B and plasma cells detected in PBMCs were highly correlated with antibody titers prechallenge and protection in the RRR cohort. In contrast, early signatures of innate immunity and dendritic cell activation were highly associated with protection in the ARR cohort. For both vaccine regimens, natural killer (NK) cell signatures negatively correlated with and predicted protection. These results suggest that protective immunity against P. falciparum can be achieved via multiple mechanisms and highlight the utility of systems approaches in defining molecular correlates of protection to vaccination.
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              Immunity to malaria after administration of ultra-low doses of red cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum.

              The ability of T cells, acting independently of antibodies, to control malaria parasite growth in people has not been defined. If such was shown to be effective, an additional vaccine strategy could be pursued. Our aim was to ascertain whether or not development of cell-mediated immunity to Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage infection could be induced in human beings by exposure to malaria parasites in very low density. We enrolled five volunteers from the staff at our research institute who had never had malaria. We used a cryopreserved inoculum of red cells infected with P falciparum strain 3D7 to give them repeated subclinical infections of malaria that we then cured early with drugs, to induce cell-mediated immune responses. We tested for development of immunity by measurement of parasite concentrations in the blood of volunteers by PCR of the multicopy gene STEVOR and by following up the volunteers clinically, and by measuring antibody and cellular immune responses to the parasite. After challenge and a extended period without drug cure, volunteers were protected against malaria as indicated by absence of parasites or parasite DNA in the blood, and absence of clinical symptoms. Immunity was characterised by absence of detectable antibodies that bind the parasite or infected red cells, but by the presence of a proliferative T-cell response, involving CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, a cytokine response, consisting of interferon gamma but not interleukin 4 or interleukin 10, induction of high concentrations of nitric oxide synthase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and a drop in the number of peripheral natural killer T cells. People can be protected against the erythrocytic stage of malaria by a strong cell-mediated immune response, in the absence of detectable parasite-specific antibodies, suggesting an additional strategy for development of a malaria vaccine
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Journal of Immunology
                J.I.
                The American Association of Immunologists
                0022-1767
                1550-6606
                March 05 2018
                March 15 2018
                March 05 2018
                March 15 2018
                : 200
                : 6
                : 1965-1975
                Article
                10.4049/jimmunol.1701316
                © 2018

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