A 61-year-old woman with a 2-year history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) developed nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy showed minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), and no evidence of diabetic glomerulosclerosis. Although steroid therapy was initiated, plasma urea and creatinine rose and hemodialysis was required. After 4 weeks, she responded to steroids and her renal function returned to normal. MCNS, which is not associated with diabetic glomerulosclerosis, has rarely been seen in IDDM patients with nephrotic syndrome. Her human leukocyte antigen typing was A24, BW52, BW61, DR2 and DR9. This typing has been reported to be associated with both IDDM and renal disease.