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Coverage of the 2011 Q Fever Vaccination Campaign in the Netherlands, Using Retrospective Population-Based Prevalence Estimation of Cardiovascular Risk-Conditions for Chronic Q Fever

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      BackgroundIn 2011, a unique Q fever vaccination campaign targeted people at risk for chronic Q fever in the southeast of the Netherlands. General practitioners referred patients with defined cardiovascular risk-conditions (age >15 years). Prevalence rates of those risk-conditions were lacking, standing in the way of adequate planning and coverage estimation. We aimed to obtain prevalence rates retrospectively in order to estimate coverage of the Q fever vaccination campaign.MethodsWith broad search terms for these predefined risk-conditions, we extracted patient-records from a large longitudinal general-practice research-database in the Netherlands (IPCI-database). After validation of these records, obtained prevalence rates (stratified for age and sex) extrapolated to the Q fever high-incidence area population, gave an approximation of the size of the targeted patient-group. Coverage calculation addressed people actually screened by a pre-vaccination Q fever skin test and serology (coverage) and patients referred by their general practitioners (adjusted-coverage) in the 2011 campaign.ResultsOur prevalence estimate of any risk-condition was 3.1% (lower-upper limits 2.9-3.3%). For heart valve defects, aorta aneurysm/prosthesis, congenital anomalies and endocarditis, prevalence was 2.4%, 0.6%, 0.4% and 0.1%, respectively. Estimated number of eligible people in the Q fever high-incidence area was 11,724 (10,965-12,532). With 1330 people screened for vaccination, coverage of the vaccination campaign was 11%. For referred people, the adjusted coverage was 18%. Coverage was lowest among the very-old and highest for people aged 50–70 years.ConclusionThe estimated coverage of the vaccination campaign was limited. This should be interpreted in the light of the complexity of this target-group with much co-morbidity, and of the vaccine that required invasive pre-vaccination screening. Calculation of prevalence rates of risk-conditions based on the IPCI-database was feasible. This procedure proved an efficient tool for future use, when prevalence estimates for policy, implementation or surveillance of subgroup-vaccination or other health-care interventions are needed.

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      Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles.18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies.A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies
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          A prospective survey of patients with valvular heart disease in Europe: The Euro Heart Survey on Valvular Heart Disease.

          To identify the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of contemporary patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) in Europe, and to examine adherence to guidelines. The Euro Heart Survey on VHD was conducted from April to July 2001 in 92 centres from 25 countries; it included prospectively 5001 adults with moderate to severe native VHD, infective endocarditis, or previous valve intervention. VHD was native in 71.9% of patients and 28.1% had had a previous intervention. Mean age was 64+/-14 years. Degenerative aetiologies were the most frequent in aortic VHD and mitral regurgitation while most cases of mitral stenosis were of rheumatic origin. Coronary angiography was used in 85.2% of patients before intervention. Of the 1269 patients who underwent intervention, prosthetic replacement was performed in 99.0% of aortic VHD, percutaneous dilatation in 33.9% of mitral stenosis, and valve repair in 46.5% of mitral regurgitation; 31.7% of patients had > or =1 associated procedure. Of patients with severe, symptomatic, single VHD, 31.8% did not undergo intervention, most frequently because of comorbidities. In asymptomatic patients, accordance with guidelines ranged between 66.0 and 78.5%. Operative mortality was <5% for single VHD. This survey provides unique contemporary data on characteristics and management of patients with VHD. Adherence to guidelines is globally satisfying as regards investigations and interventions.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands
            [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
            [3 ]Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
            Texas A&M Health Science Center, UNITED STATES
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Conceived and designed the experiments: PEVdB TS. Performed the experiments: PEVdB TS AV. Analyzed the data: PEVdB TS AV. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PEVdB TS AV. Wrote the paper: PEVdB TS AV LI MvD MS AT. Designed the software used in analysis: AV PEVdB TS.

            Role: Academic Editor
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
            24 April 2015
            : 10
            : 4
            (Academic Editor)

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

            Figures: 6, Tables: 5, Pages: 16
            The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (, grant number 205520002: TS. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. No other authors received any funding for this work.
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