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      Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptability of the Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Vaccination Among University Students in Indonesia

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Cervical cancer, a major consequence of persistent HPV infection, is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and has claimed around 311,000 women lives in 2018. The majority of these deaths took place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In LMICs, where cervical cancer screening coverage is low, the HPV vaccine is a promising tool for preventing HPV infections and, thus, averting cervical cancer cases. In Indonesia, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer and HPV vaccination demonstration programs are underway in several provinces, but the HPV vaccine has not yet been introduced nationally. Since students are an important source of information for the community, and medical and nursing students are the future healthcare professionals, this study explored the knowledge, attitude, and acceptability of the HPV vaccine among University students in Indonesia.

          Methodology: A self-administered online questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and willingness of University students toward HPV vaccination.

          Result: A total of 433 students from Medical, Nursing, Social Sciences, and other faculties participated in the survey. It was identified that over 90% of the students were aware of cervical cancer and HPV, but only 68% knew about the HPV vaccine before participating in the study. Despite an average knowledge on the HPV vaccine, the students showed a strong willingness to receive the vaccine (95.8% acceptance rate). They believed that the HPV vaccine is safe and effective and that it will protect against HPV infection. The high cost and the lack of adequate information flow on HPV-related topics have been identified as potential barriers to the adoption of the HPV vaccine in Indonesia.

          Conclusion: Despite a high willingness for HPV vaccine uptake among students, there is a need to provide education on HPV vaccine-related topics to Indonesian students through awareness and training programs and improving the academic curriculum on vaccination for the long-term sustainability of the HPV vaccination program.

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          Most cited references30

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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            Attitudes to vaccination: a critical review.

            This paper provides a consolidated overview of public and healthcare professionals' attitudes towards vaccination in Europe by bringing together for the first time evidence across various vaccines, countries and populations. The paper relies on an extensive review of empirical literature published in English after 2009, as well as an analysis of unpublished market research data from member companies of Vaccines Europe. Our synthesis suggests that hesitant attitudes to vaccination are prevalent and may be increasing since the influenza pandemic of 2009. We define hesitancy as an expression of concern or doubt about the value or safety of vaccination. This means that hesitant attitudes are not confined only to those who refuse vaccination or those who encourage others to refuse vaccination. For many people, vaccination attitudes are shaped not just by healthcare professionals but also by an array of other information sources, including online and social media sources. We find that healthcare professionals report increasing challenges to building a trustful relationship with patients, through which they might otherwise allay concerns and reassure hesitant patients. We also find a range of reasons for vaccination attitudes, only some of which can be characterised as being related to lack of awareness or misinformation. Reasons that relate to issues of mistrust are cited more commonly in the literature than reasons that relate to information deficit. The importance of trust in the institutions involved with vaccination is discussed in terms of implications for researchers and policy-makers; we suggest that rebuilding this trust is a multi-stakeholder problem requiring a co-ordinated strategy.
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              Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors

              Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) types is causally linked with the development of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers worldwide.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Public Health
                Front Public Health
                Front. Public Health
                Frontiers in Public Health
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-2565
                14 June 2021
                2021
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Network for Education and Support in Immunisation (NESI), Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, University of Antwerp , Antwerp, Belgium
                [2] 2Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran , Bandung, Indonesia
                [3] 3Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran , Bandung, Indonesia
                [4] 4INSERM, U1052, Cancer Research Center of Lyon (CRCL), CNRS UMR_5286, UnivLyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (UCBL1) , Lyon, France
                [5] 5Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, University of Antwerp , Antwerp, Belgium
                Author notes

                Edited by: Chandini Raina MacIntyre, University of New South Wales, Australia

                Reviewed by: Ana Afonso, University of São Paulo, Brazil; James Sutherland Lawson, University of New South Wales, Australia

                *Correspondence: Carine Dochez carine.dochez@ 123456uantwerpen.be

                This article was submitted to Infectious Diseases - Surveillance, Prevention and Treatment, a section of the journal Frontiers in Public Health

                Article
                10.3389/fpubh.2021.616456
                8236520
                34195167
                eb1a4de3-3d43-49eb-aba2-18c5f81371fb
                Copyright © 2021 Khatiwada, Kartasasmita, Mediani, Delprat, Van Hal and Dochez.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 9, Words: 6261
                Categories
                Public Health
                Original Research

                hpv vaccine,cervical cancer,awareness,vaccine acceptance,university students,indonesia

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