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      Nano-structured antimicrobial surfaces: From nature to synthetic analogues.

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          Abstract

          The scientific and industrial interest in antimicrobial surfaces has significantly increased in recent times. This interest is largely in response to the persistent microbial contamination of industrial and, importantly, medical implant surfaces. Bacterial contamination of implant surfaces often leads to infection at the implant-tissue interface, and with the prevalence of increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance, the treatment of these infections is becoming far more challenging. Recently, many naturally occurring, high-aspect-ratio surface topographies have been discovered that exhibit high levels of biocidal efficacy. These include epicuticular lipid nano-architectures that are formed on the surfaces of insect wings, such as cicadae and dragonflies. The antimicrobial activity of such surfaces has been found to be a consequence of the physical interactions between the nanoscale topography of the substrate and the attaching pathogenic cells, meaning that the activity is independent of biochemical surface functionality. Importantly, these desirable surface properties can be translated to synthetic biomimetic surfaces, which, when mimicked, lead to a substantial increase in the antimicrobial properties of such surfaces. This paper reviews the recent advances in understanding the basis of these mechanical antimicrobial mechanisms, and discusses the progress being made towards the fabrication of optimised, biocompatible, synthetic analogues.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J Colloid Interface Sci
          Journal of colloid and interface science
          Elsevier BV
          1095-7103
          0021-9797
          Dec 15 2017
          : 508
          Affiliations
          [1 ] School of Science, College of Science, Engineering and Health, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.
          [2 ] School of Science, College of Science, Engineering and Health, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia. Electronic address: russell.crawford@rmit.edu.au.
          [3 ] Faculty of Science, Engineering, and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia.
          Article
          S0021-9797(17)30788-9
          10.1016/j.jcis.2017.07.021
          28728752

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