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      Supporting carers: health care professionals in need of system improvements and education - a qualitative study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Health care professionals should prevent and relieve suffering in carers of patients with advanced cancer. Despite known positive effects of systematic carer support, carers still do not receive sufficient support. Carers have reported to be less satisfied with coordination of care and involvement of the family in treatment and care decisions than patients. In a rural district of Mid-Norway, cancer palliative care services across specialist and community care were developed. Participants’ experiences and opinions were investigated as part of this development process.

          Methods

          The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe health care professionals’ experiences with carer support from their own perspective. Data were collected in focus groups. Purposeful sampling guided the inclusion. Six groups were formed with 21 professionals. The discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using systematic text condensation.

          Results

          In the analyzis of the focus group discussions, ten categories emerged from the exploration of health care professionals’ carer support, assessment of needs, and factors hampering carer support: 1) dependent on profession, role, and context, 2) personal relationship, 3) personal skills and competence, 4) adjusted to the stage of the disease, 5) informal assessment of carers’ needs, 6) lack of education 7) lack of systems for carer consultations, 8) lack of systems for documentation, 9) lack of systems for involving GPs, and 10) lack of systematic spiritual care.

          Conclusions

          Health care professionals built a personal relationship with the carers as early as possible, to facilitate carer support throughout the disease trajectory. Systematic carer support was hampered by lack of education and system insufficiencies. Organizational changes were needed, including 1) education in carer support, communication, and spiritual care, 2) use of standardized care pathways, including systematic carer needs assessment, 3) systematic involvement of general practitioners, and 4) a system for documentation of clinical work with carers.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Interventions with family caregivers of cancer patients: meta-analysis of randomized trials.

          Family caregivers of cancer patients receive little preparation, information, or support to perform their caregiving role. However, their psychosocial needs must be addressed so they can maintain their own health and provide the best possible care to the patient. The purpose of this article is to analyze the types of interventions offered to family caregivers of cancer patients, and to determine the effect of these interventions on various caregiver outcomes. Meta-analysis was used to analyze data obtained from 29 randomized clinical trials published from 1983 through March 2009. Three types of interventions were offered to caregivers: psychoeducational, skills training, and therapeutic counseling. Most interventions were delivered jointly to patients and caregivers, but they varied considerably with regard to dose and duration. The majority of caregivers were female (64%) and Caucasian (84%), and ranged in age from 18 to 92 years (mean age, 55 years). Meta-analysis indicated that although these interventions had small to medium effects, they significantly reduced caregiver burden, improved caregivers' ability to cope, increased their self-efficacy, and improved aspects of their quality of life. Various intervention characteristics were also examined as potential moderators. Clinicians need to deliver research-tested interventions to help caregivers and patients cope effectively and maintain their quality of life. Copyright 2010 American Cancer Society, Inc.
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            Benefits of Early Versus Delayed Palliative Care to Informal Family Caregivers of Patients With Advanced Cancer: Outcomes From the ENABLE III Randomized Controlled Trial.

            To determine the effect of early versus delayed initiation of a palliative care intervention for family caregivers (CGs) of patients with advanced cancer.
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              Integration of oncology and palliative care: a Lancet Oncology Commission

              Full integration of oncology and palliative care relies on the specific knowledge and skills of two modes of care: the tumour-directed approach, the main focus of which is on treating the disease; and the host-directed approach, which focuses on the patient with the disease. This Commission addresses how to combine these two paradigms to achieve the best outcome of patient care. Randomised clinical trials on integration of oncology and palliative care point to health gains: improved survival and symptom control, less anxiety and depression, reduced use of futile chemotherapy at the end of life, improved family satisfaction and quality of life, and improved use of health-care resources. Early delivery of patient-directed care by specialist palliative care teams alongside tumour-directed treatment promotes patient-centred care. Systematic assessment and use of patient-reported outcomes and active patient involvement in the decisions about cancer care result in better symptom control, improved physical and mental health, and better use of health-care resources. The absence of international agreements on the content and standards of the organisation, education, and research of palliative care in oncology are major barriers to successful integration. Other barriers include the common misconception that palliative care is end-of-life care only, stigmatisation of death and dying, and insufficient infrastructure and funding. The absence of established priorities might also hinder integration more widely. This Commission proposes the use of standardised care pathways and multidisciplinary teams to promote integration of oncology and palliative care, and calls for changes at the system level to coordinate the activities of professionals, and for the development and implementation of new and improved education programmes, with the overall goal of improving patient care. Integration raises new research questions, all of which contribute to improved clinical care. When and how should palliative care be delivered? What is the optimal model for integrated care? What is the biological and clinical effect of living with advanced cancer for years after diagnosis? Successful integration must challenge the dualistic perspective of either the tumour or the host, and instead focus on a merged approach that places the patient's perspective at the centre. To succeed, integration must be anchored by management and policy makers at all levels of health care, followed by adequate resource allocation, a willingness to prioritise goals and needs, and sustained enthusiasm to help generate support for better integration. This integrated model must be reflected in international and national cancer plans, and be followed by developments of new care models, education and research programmes, all of which should be adapted to the specific cultural contexts within which they are situated. Patient-centred care should be an integrated part of oncology care independent of patient prognosis and treatment intention. To achieve this goal it must be based on changes in professional cultures and priorities in health care.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ingebrigt.roen@stolav.no
                Hans.Stifoss-Hanssen@vid.no
                Gunn.Grande@manchester.ac.uk
                stein.kaasa@medisin.uio.no
                Kari.Sand@sintef.no
                ankakn@ous-hf.no
                Journal
                BMC Palliat Care
                BMC Palliat Care
                BMC Palliative Care
                BioMed Central (London )
                1472-684X
                16 July 2019
                16 July 2019
                2019
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1516 2393, GRID grid.5947.f, European Palliative Care Research Centre (PRC), Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, , Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), ; 4. etg. Kunnskapssenteret vest, St. Olavs hospital, 7006 Trondheim, Norway
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0627 3560, GRID grid.52522.32, St. Olavs hospital HF, , Trondheim University Hospital, ; 4. etg. Kunnskapssenteret vest, St. Olavs hospital, 7006 Trondheim, Norway
                [3 ]GRID grid.463529.f, Center of diakonia and professional practice, , VID Specialized University, ; Oslo, Norway
                [4 ]ISNI 0000000121662407, GRID grid.5379.8, Division of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, , The University of Manchester, ; Manchester, England
                [5 ]European Palliative Care Research Centre (PRC), Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0389 8485, GRID grid.55325.34, Department of Oncology, , Oslo University Hospital, ; Oslo, Norway
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8921, GRID grid.5510.1, University of Oslo, ; Oslo, Norway
                Article
                444
                10.1186/s12904-019-0444-3
                6636145
                31311536
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Samarbeidsorganet Helse Midt-Norge og NTNU
                Award ID: 2015/128
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Norske Kvinners Sanitetsforening (NO)
                Award ID: Board decision dated 03.03.2015
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

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