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      Ceftriaxone Is an Efficient Component of Antimicrobial Regimens in the Prevention and Initial Management of Infections in End-Stage Renal Disease

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          Background: Infection is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal disease. The most common organisms isolated are gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli. Therefore, the usual initial therapeutic approach in these situations is the simultaneous intravenous administration of vancomycin plus an aminoglycoside. This treatment's adverse effects include ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and less than ideal tissue penetrance. Methods: We assessed the efficacy of intravenous ceftriaxone in the prevention and in the initial empirical treatment of infections in end-stage renal disease patients, and tested the stability of blood levels of this antibiotic in this population. We studied 104 patients, 65 of them falling into the prevention group (1 g of ceftriaxone i.v. for 5 days) and 39 into the treatment group (1 g of ceftriaxone i.v. or intraperitoneally for 10-14 days). Results: Peak serum ceftriaxone concentrations were well above the minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% of strains. Trough serum concentrations of the drug prior to the next dose were also considerably in excess of the minimal inhibitory concentration. In the prevention group, 8 of 65 developed an infection, which was sensitive to ceftriaxone, whereas in 22 of the 39 patients from the treatment group, cultures showed organisms sensitive to ceftriaxone and in the remaining 17 patients sensitivity was not done. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the efficacy of a simplified dosing schedule in achieving blood levels of the antibiotic well in excess of minimal inhibitory concentration of any of the organisms encountered. It also shows the usefulness of ceftriaxone in the prevention and/or treatment of bacterial infections and the lack of the side effects vancomycin and/or aminoglycosides possess.

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          Author and article information

          Am J Nephrol
          American Journal of Nephrology
          S. Karger AG
          October 2000
          15 November 2000
          : 20
          : 5
          : 391-395
          aServicio de Nefrología y Hemodiálisis, Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Argentina; bRenal Section, Department of Medicine, The Methodist Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA
          13624 Am J Nephrol 2000;20:391–395
          © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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          Figures: 2, References: 36, Pages: 5
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