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      Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease in Dialyzed Patients

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: Oxidative damage has been suggested to play a key role in accelerated atherosclerosis and to be involved in cardiovascular disease (CVD) of dialyzed patients who are at risk of increased oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the severity of CVD and some markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in our hemodialyzed (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods: Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA-4HNE), thiols, α-tocopherol, and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured in 55 HD and in 16 PD patients. CVD was considered as the result of variably combined cardiac, cerebral, and vascular pathologies which were scored and grouped in a single CVD index and analyzed with respect to the markers of the oxidative status. 16 normal subjects served as controls. Results: All patients showed evidence of increased oxidative stress which was more severe in HD than in PD patients and which was exacerbated by HD. When cardiac, cerebral, and vascular diseases were analyzed separately, plasma MDA-4HNE and TAS were significantly higher in more severely affected HD patients, but not in PD patients. In HD patients the CVD index was directly correlated with both MDA-4HNE and TAS (r = 0.42, p < 0.01; r = 0.39, p < 0.01) and inversely correlated with α-tocopherol (r = –0.32, p < 0.05). MDA-4HNE and TAS were directly correlated in HD patients and inversely correlated in control subjects. Conclusions: Our data show that, in spite of increased antioxidant defense, there is a relationship between the degree of lipid peroxidation and the severity of CVD in HD patients. Moreover, these data underscore the utility of MDA-4HNE, α-tocopherol, and TAS in the evaluation of cardiovascular disease.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial

           U Gafter,  A Iaina,  A. Knecht (2000)
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            Serum malondialdehyde and prevalent cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis.

            Oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism by which the accelerated rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) observed in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients may be explained. This study examined the effects of HD and CVD on serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker of oxidative stress in HD patients with and without prevalent CVD. Serum MDA levels and CVD prevalence in HD were modeled. Serum MDA was determined using spectrophotometry in HD patients (N = 76, 53 men and 23 women, mean age 63.8 years) immediately prior to and at the conclusion of one midweek HD treatment. Traditional CVD risk factors, including serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and fibrinogen, were also measured, as were serum chemistry and dialysis adequacy. Mean serum MDA levels were significantly elevated in HD patients with prevalent CVD compared with those without, whereas serum lipoprotein and plasma fibrinogen levels did not differ between the two groups. Patients in the highest compared with the lowest tertile of postdialysis MDA were nearly four times as likely to have prevalent CVD, and serum MDA was the single strongest predictor of prevalent CVD in this patient population. These findings indicate the presence of oxidative stress in HD patients, and are consistent with the theory of oxidative stress as a factor in accelerated CVD in this population.
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              Autoxidation products of both carbohydrates and lipids are increased in uremic plasma: is there oxidative stress in uremia?

              Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed by non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation (glycoxidation) reactions, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including normoglycemic uremia. AGE research in uremia has focused on the accumulation of carbohydrate-derived adducts generated by the Maillard reaction. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that one AGE, the glycoxidation product carboxymethyllysine (CML), could be derived not only from carbohydrates but also from oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in vitro, raising the possibility that both carbohydrate and lipid autoxidation might be increased in uremia. To address this hypothesis, we applied gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography to measure protein adducts formed in uremic plasma by reactions between carbonyl compounds and protein amino groups: pentosidine derived from carbohydrate-derived carbonyls, malondialdehyde (MDA)-lysine derived from lipid-derived carbonyls, and CML originating possibly from both sources. All three adducts were elevated in uremic plasma. Plasma CML levels were mainly (>95%) albumin bound. Their levels were not correlated with fructoselysine levels and were similar in diabetic and non-diabetic patients on hemodialysis, indicating that their increase was not driven by glucose. Pentosidine and MDA-lysine were also increased in plasma to the same extent in diabetic and non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. Statistical analysis indicated that plasma levels of CML correlated weakly (P 0.5). These data suggest that the increased levels of AGEs in blood, and probably in tissues, reported in uremia implicate a broad derangement in non-enzymatic biochemistry involving alterations in autoxidation of both carbohydrates and lipids.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2002
                May 2002
                02 May 2002
                : 91
                : 1
                : 25-33
                Affiliations
                aServizio di Nefrologia e Dialisi, Ospedale di Leno, bTerzo Laboratorio Analisi Chimico Cliniche/Biotecnologie, Spedali Civili di Brescia, cLaboratorio Monitoraggio Patologie da Stress Ossidativo, Università di Siena, dServizio di Nefrologia e Dialisi, Ospedale di Cremona, e eCattedra di Chimica, Università di Brescia, Italia
                Article
                57601 Nephron 2002;91:25–33
                10.1159/000057601
                12021516
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 49, Pages: 9
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/57601
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Cardiovascular disease, Oxidative stress, Dialysis

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