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      ROS and NO Regulation by Melatonin Under Abiotic Stress in Plants


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          Abiotic stress in plants is an increasingly common problem in agriculture, and thus, studies on plant treatments with specific compounds that may help to mitigate these effects have increased in recent years. Melatonin (MET) application and its role in mitigating the negative effects of abiotic stress in plants have become important in the last few years. MET, a derivative of tryptophan, is an important plant-related response molecule involved in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants, and the induction of different stress factors. In addition, MET plays a protective role against different abiotic stresses such as salinity, high/low temperature, high light, waterlogging, nutrient deficiency and stress combination by regulating both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. Moreover, MET interacts with many signaling molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and participates in a wide variety of physiological reactions. It is well known that NO produces S-nitrosylation and NO 2-Tyr of important antioxidant-related proteins, with this being an important mechanism for maintaining the antioxidant capacity of the AsA/GSH cycle under nitro-oxidative conditions, as extensively reviewed here under different abiotic stress conditions. Lastly, in this review, we show the coordinated actions between NO and MET as a long-range signaling molecule, regulating many responses in plants, including plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Despite all the knowledge acquired over the years, there is still more to know about how MET and NO act on the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses.

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          Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

          Various abiotic stresses lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants which are highly reactive and toxic and cause damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA which ultimately results in oxidative stress. The ROS comprises both free radical (O(2)(-), superoxide radicals; OH, hydroxyl radical; HO(2), perhydroxy radical and RO, alkoxy radicals) and non-radical (molecular) forms (H(2)O(2), hydrogen peroxide and (1)O(2), singlet oxygen). In chloroplasts, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) are the major sites for the production of (1)O(2) and O(2)(-). In mitochondria, complex I, ubiquinone and complex III of electron transport chain (ETC) are the major sites for the generation of O(2)(-). The antioxidant defense machinery protects plants against oxidative stress damages. Plants possess very efficient enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR; monodehydroascorbate reductase, MDHAR; dehydroascorbate reductase, DHAR; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; guaicol peroxidase, GOPX and glutathione-S- transferase, GST) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, ASH; glutathione, GSH; phenolic compounds, alkaloids, non-protein amino acids and α-tocopherols) antioxidant defense systems which work in concert to control the cascades of uncontrolled oxidation and protect plant cells from oxidative damage by scavenging of ROS. ROS also influence the expression of a number of genes and therefore control the many processes like growth, cell cycle, programmed cell death (PCD), abiotic stress responses, pathogen defense, systemic signaling and development. In this review, we describe the biochemistry of ROS and their production sites, and ROS scavenging antioxidant defense machinery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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            Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants.

            As sessile organisms, plants must cope with abiotic stress such as soil salinity, drought, and extreme temperatures. Core stress-signaling pathways involve protein kinases related to the yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK, suggesting that stress signaling in plants evolved from energy sensing. Stress signaling regulates proteins critical for ion and water transport and for metabolic and gene-expression reprogramming to bring about ionic and water homeostasis and cellular stability under stress conditions. Understanding stress signaling and responses will increase our ability to improve stress resistance in crops to achieve agricultural sustainability and food security for a growing world population.
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              Heat tolerance in plants: An overview


                Author and article information

                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                03 November 2020
                November 2020
                : 9
                : 11
                : 1078
                Department of Plant Nutrition, Center of Edaphology and Applied Biology of Segura (CEBAS-CSIC), Campus Universitario Espinardo, Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain; mpardo@ 123456cebas.csic.es (M.P.-H.); mlopez@ 123456cebas.csic.es (M.L.-D.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: rmrivero@ 123456cebas.csic.es ; Tel.: +34-968396200 (ext. 6379)
                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 02 October 2020
                : 29 October 2020

                melatonin,ros,no,post-translational modifications (pmts), abiotic stress,drought,salinity,high temperature,high light,waterlogging,abiotic stress combination


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