Nanoplastics: From tissue accumulation to cell translocation into Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes. resilience of immune cells exposed to nanoplastics and nanoplastics plus Vibrio splendidus combination
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<p class="first" id="d11458172e109">Plastic litter is an issue of global concern.
In this work Mytilus galloprovincialis
was used to study the distribution and effects of polystyrene nanoplastics (PS NPs)
of different sizes (50 nm, 100 nm and 1 μm) on immune cells. Internalization and translocation
of NPs to hemolymph were carried out by in vivo experiments, while endocytic routes
and effects of PS NPs on hemocytes were studied in vitro. The smallest PS NPs tested
were detected in the digestive gland and muscle. A fast and size-dependent translocation
of PS NPs to the hemolymph was recorded after 3 h of exposure. The internalization
rate of 50 nm PS NPs was lower when caveolae and clathrin endocytosis pathways were
inhibited. On the other hand, the internalization of larger particles decreased when
phagocytosis was inhibited. The hemocytes exposed to NPs had changes in motility,
apoptosis, ROS and phagocytic capacity. However, they showed resilience when were
infected with bacteria after PS NP exposure being able to recover their phagocytic
capacity although the expression of the antimicrobial peptide Myticin C was reduced.
Our findings show for the first time the translocation of PS NPs into hemocytes and
how their effects trigger the loss of its functional parameters.