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      Rural-to-Urban Migration: Socioeconomic Status But Not Acculturation was Associated with Overweight/Obesity Risk

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          Abstract

          To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES was a significant predictor of overweight/obesity risk. Lower SES decreased the odds of being overweight/obese by 51.4 %. This association did not vary by gender nor was it explained by PA. Mechanisms underlying the relationship between SES and overweight/obesity may differ depending on the geographic location and sociocultural context of the population studied. Research on internal migration and health would benefit from the development of tailored acculturation measures and the evaluation of exploratory models that include diet.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Assessment of physical activity by self-report: status, limitations, and future directions.

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            Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation

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              Do healthy behaviors decline with greater acculturation? Implications for the Latino mortality paradox.

              Relative to non-Latino whites, Latinos in the United States have a lower socioeconomic status (SES) profile, but a lower all-cause mortality rate. Because lower SES is associated with poorer overall health, a great deal of controversy surrounds the Latino mortality paradox. We employed a secondary data analysis of the 1991 National Health Interview Survey to test the health behavior and acculturation hypotheses, which have been proposed to explain this paradox. These hypotheses posit that: (1) Latinos have more favorable health behaviors and risk factor profiles than non-Latino whites, and (2) Health behaviors and risk factors become more unfavorable with greater acculturation. Specific health behaviors and risk factors studied were: smoking, alcohol use, leisure-time exercise activity, and body mass index (BMI). Consistent with the health behaviors hypothesis, Latinos relative to non-Latino whites were less likely to smoke and drink alcohol, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Latinos, however, were less likely to engage in any exercise activity, and were more likely to have a high BMI compared with non-Latino whites, after controlling for age and SES. Results provided partial support for the acculturation hypothesis. After adjusting for age and SES, higher acculturation was associated with three unhealthy behaviors (a greater likelihood of high alcohol intake, current smoking, a high BMI), but improvement in a fourth (greater likelihood of recent exercise). Gender-specific analyses indicated that the observed differences between Latinos and non-Latino whites, as well as the effects of acculturation on health behaviors, varied across men and women. Results suggest that the health behaviors and acculturation hypotheses may help to at least partially explain the Latino mortality paradox. The mechanisms accounting for the relationship between acculturation and risky behaviors have yet to be identified.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                1-832-908-6063 , angelcaes@hotmail.com , ahilmer1@jhu.edu
                Journal
                J Immigr Minor Health
                J Immigr Minor Health
                Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
                Springer US (New York )
                1557-1912
                1557-1920
                19 June 2015
                19 June 2015
                2016
                : 18
                : 644-651
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD USA
                [ ]CRONICAS Center of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
                [ ]Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Administration, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
                [ ]Área de Investigación y Desarrollo, A.B. PRISMA, Lima, Peru
                [ ]Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
                [ ]Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
                [ ]5539 Carew St., Houston, TX 77096 USA
                Article
                234
                10.1007/s10903-015-0234-9
                4861745
                26087715
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funding
                Funded by: Wellcome Trust Masters Research Training Fellowship and a Wellcome Trust PhD Studentship
                Award ID: GR074833MA
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Original Paper
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

                Health & Social care

                migration, acculturation, socioeconomic status, physical activity, latin america

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