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      Different Mitogen-Mediated Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Modulation in Murine T Lymphocytes Depending on the Thyroid Status

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          Objective: The aim of this work was to analyze β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) regulation of T-lymphocyte proliferation in mice according to different thyroid hormone statuses. Methods: T cells from eu-, hypo- (by propylthiouracil treatment) and hyperthyroid (by thyroxine, T4 administration) mice were purified and specific radioligand binding assays were performed. The effects of the β-agonist isoproterenol (ISO) on intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) were determined. Mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation was measured by [<sup>3</sup>H]-thymidine incorporation. Finally, protein kinase C (PKC) activity in cytosol and membrane fractions were determined using radiolabelled enzymatic substrates. Results: Adecrease or a non-significant increase in βAR number was found on T lymphocytes from hypo- and hyperthyroid mice compared to euthyroid controls. ISO stimulation of cAMP levels was lower in hypothyroid and higher in hyperthyroid T lymphocytes compared to controls. T-selective mitogen-induced proliferation was increased in T4-treated animals, but decreased in hypothyroid mice. During the peak of proliferation, downregulation of βAR was observed in all animals. However, a higher or a lower decrease was observed in hyper- and hypothyroid T cells, respectively. In parallel, a higher translocation of PKC activity was observed in hyperthyroid cells, and a lower one was found in hypothyroid lymphocytes with respect to controls. Conclusions: These results indicate that intracellular signals triggered by mitogen activation, namely PKC, would be related to differential βAR downregulation in T lymphocytes depending on the thyroid hormone status, contributing to the distinct proliferative responses found in hypo- or hyperthyroidism compared to the euthyroid state.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Noradrenergic sympathetic neural interactions with the immune system: structure and function.

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            Mice deficient in the steroid receptor co-activator 1 (SRC-1) are resistant to thyroid hormone.

            Steroid receptor co-activator 1 (SRC-1) is a transcription co-factor that enhances the hormone-dependent action, mediated by the thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) and other nuclear receptors. In vitro studies have shown that SRC-1 is necessary for the full expression of TH effect. SRC-1 knockout mice (SRC-1(-/-)) provide a model to examine the role of this co-activator on TH action in vivo. At baseline, SRC-1(-/-) mice display resistance to TH (RTH) as evidenced by a 2.5-fold elevation of serum TSH levels, despite a 50% increase in serum free TH levels as compared with wild-type (SRC-1(+/+)) mice. When mice were made hypothyroid, TSH levels increased, obliterating the difference between SRC-1(+/+) and SRC-1(-/-) mice observed at baseline. In contrast, the decline of TSH by treatment with L-triiodothyronine was severely blunted in SRC-1(-/-) mice. These data indicate that SRC-1 is not required for the upregulation of TSH in TH deficiency. However, SRC-1 enhances the sensitivity of TSH downregulation by TH. This is the first demonstration of RTH caused by a deficient co-factor other than TR. It supports the hypothesis that a putative defect in the SRC-1 gene or another co-factor could be the cause of RTH in humans without mutations in the TR genes.
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              Experimental evidence pointing to the bidirectional interaction between the immune system and the thyroid axis.

              Among the many examples of neuroendocrine-immune system interactions the relationship between the thyroid axis and the immune function has yet to be clearly established. Here we studied the influence of thyroid hormones on the course of an alloimmune response. Murine T(3) and T(4) levels were found to be increased a few days after the immunization of mice with allogeneic lymphoid cells. Besides in vivo treatment with T(4) was shown to increase alloantibody titers during the early stages of alloimmunization and to enforce lymphoid proliferation in vitro in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Conversely, lowering thyroid hormone seric levels by propylthiouracil treatment, negatively modulates the humoral and cellular alloimmune responses. The evidence here points to the existence of a bidirectional communication between both systems. The possibility that the antigenic challenge would increase the thyroid gland activity thus leading to a positive modulatory action upon the immune response is also discussed.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                March 2005
                17 March 2005
                : 12
                : 2
                : 92-99
                aLaboratorio de Radioisótopos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, bCentro de Estudios Farmacológicos y Botánicos, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                83581 Neuroimmunomodulation 2005;12:92–99
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 44, Pages: 8
                Original Paper


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