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      Age- and Stress-Induced Changes in Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone mRNA Expression in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus

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          Abstract

          In reaction to acute stress, prepubertal (25–28 days of age) animals demonstrate a prolonged adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone response compared to adults (>65 days of age), while after chronic stress, prepubertal animals show a higher peak ACTH and corticosterone response, but a faster return to baseline compared to adults. Differential activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of prepubertal and adult animals have been suggested to mediate these changes in stress responsiveness. The purpose of the present set of experiments was to further elucidate possible differences in PVN structure and function in prepubertal (28 days of age) and adult (77 days of age) male rats. The results indicate that PVN volume and somal size and cell number are similar in the parvocellular and magnocellular subdivision of the PVN before and after pubertal development. Furthermore, after a peripheral injection of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG), prepubertal and adult males demonstrate similar numbers of anterior pituitary projecting neurosecretory neurons in the parvocellular region of the PVN. Finally, using in situ hybridization we show that in response to acute stress, CRH mRNA in the PVN was affected by both age and stress such that prepubertal males have greater CRH expression than adults and both prepubertal and adult males show significant stress-induced increases in CRH mRNA. Interestingly, in response to repeated restraint, neither age nor stress significantly influence CRH expression. Together, these data indicate that both age and experience with stress interact to modulate CRH expression in the PVN.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: moving from markers to mechanisms of risk.

          In the first half of this review, the authors critically evaluate existing research on the association between stressors and symptoms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. This analysis reveals (a) problems with conceptualizations of stress, (b) variability in measurement of stressors, and (c) lack of theory-driven research. To address these problems, the authors propose a general conceptual model of the relation between stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology. The authors examine basic tenets of this general model in the second half of this article by testing a specific model in which negative parenting mediates the relation between economic stressors and psychological symptoms in young people. Results generally provide support for the specific model as well as for the broader model.
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            The neurobiology of stress: from serendipity to clinical relevance11Published on the World Wide Web on 22 November 2000.

             Bruce McEwen (2000)
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              Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: measurement issues and prospective effects.

              This article reviews existing research on the association between stressors and symptoms of psychopathology in children and adolescents with a focus on measurement issues and prospective effects. The first half of the article focuses on the measurement of stressors, emphasizing checklists and interviews. Available measures of stressful experiences are reviewed and critiqued. Results of this review reveal both substantial progress (i.e., development of valid stressor assessment tools) and remaining problems (i.e., inconsistent measurement across studies). The second half of this article reviews studies that have tested for prospective associations between stressors and symptoms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Studies that have examined the prospective effects of recent or prior stressors on current psychological symptoms, while controlling for prior psychological symptoms, are reviewed. Results overall suggest that stressors predict changes in rates of symptoms of psychopathology in children and adolescents over time. Results also suggest that symptoms of psychopathology predict changes in rates of stressors over time. Implications of these findings are that conclusive evidence now exists for the importance of stressors in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2007
                July 2007
                15 May 2007
                : 85
                : 4
                : 199-206
                Affiliations
                aLaboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University, New York, N.Y., and bDepartment of Psychiatry, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga., USA
                Article
                102950 Neuroendocrinology 2007;85:199–206
                10.1159/000102950
                17505125
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 30, Pages: 8
                Categories
                CRF, Adrenocorticotropin, Adrenal Steroids and Stress

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