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      Caracterización epidemiológica de la parasitosis intestinal Translated title: Epidemiological characterization of intestinal parasitosis

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Objetivo: caracterizar la situación epidemiológica de la parasitosis intestinal en el estado Falcón en el periodo 2014 - 2020. Método: Descriptiva observacional documental. Resultados: Entre los agentes etiológicos más frecuentes se encontraron los protozoarios, especialmente el Blastocystis hominis (31,31%,) la Giardia lamblia (19,29%), y la Entamoeba histolytica (6,73%), por los helmintos están el Enterobius vermicularis (14,03%), el Áscaris lumbricoides (10,97%) y el Trichuris trichiura (4,49%). Conclusión: La población infantil fue la más afectada específicamente la población preescolar y en edad escolar, especialmente entre los 3 y los 9 años con un 77,76% lo cual se relaciona en forma directa por la exposición a factores de riesgo dados por los bajos niveles de higiene, además por los procesos de inmadurez en su sistema inmunológico.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the epidemiological situation of intestinal parasitosis in Falcón state in the period 2014 - 2020. Method: Descriptive observational documentary study. Results: Among the most frequent etiological agents were protozoa, especially Blastocystis hominis (31.31%), Giardia lamblia (19.29%), and Entamoeba histolytica (6.73%); among helminths were Enterobius vermicularis (14.03%), Ascaris lumbricoides (10.97%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.49%). Conclusion: The infant population was the most affected, specifically the preschool and school-age population, especially between 3 and 9 years of age with 77.76%, which is directly related to exposure to risk factors due to low levels of hygiene, as well as immature processes in their immune system.

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          Assessment of the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and associated risk factors among primary school children in Chencha town, Southern Ethiopia

          Background Parasitic infection is the most prevalent among rural communities in warm and humid regions and where water, hygiene and sanitation facilities are inadequate. Such infection occurs in rural areas where water supplies are not enough to drink and use, and in the absence of environmental sanitation, when the rubbish and other wastes increased, and sewage and waste water are not properly treated. Hence the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and associated risk factors. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on children of the selected primary schools in Chencha town from March to May, 2012. Children were selected within age group 5–15 years. The socio-demographic, environmental and behavioral variables data were collected using structured questionnaire from the guardians of children and school teachers to assess the risk factors. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was determined using direct method and formol-ether concentration method. Participants’ data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results Of 422 selected school children, 400 participated in the study with full information for analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was high (81.0%). Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infections (63.0%) were more prevalent than protozoa infections (23.5%). The predominant parasites were A.lumbricoides (60.5%), E.histolytica/dispar (16.25%), Giardia lamblia (11.7%) and T.trichuria (9.7%). The presence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) have statistically significant association with the educational status of the household heads, absence of washing facility, home cleanness condition and type of latrine used with (p < 0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, especially soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) is very high in the school children. The high prevalence of parasitic infections in these children indicates that the protozoa and helminths concerned are very common in the environment of these villages and the results of the risk factors analysis suggests that the transmission is from several routes. Therefore, multiple intervention strategies should be implemented for the school children, households and the environment to reduce the disease burden.
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            Human Intestinal Parasite Burden and Poor Sanitation in Rural Alabama

            Abstract. Hookworm infection affects 430 million people worldwide, causing iron deficiency, impaired cognitive development, and stunting in children. Because of the environmental conditions needed for the hookworm life-cycle, this parasite is endemic to resource-limited countries. Necator americanus was endemic in the southern United States before improvement of sewage disposal systems and eradication programs. With continued poverty, poor sanitation, and an environment suitable for the hookworm life-cycle in some regions of the southern United States, a current prevalence study using modern molecular diagnostics is warranted. Lowndes County, Alabama, was chosen as the study site given previous high hookworm burdens, degree of poverty, and use of open-sewage systems. Participants were interviewed, and stool, serum, and soil samples were tested for nine intestinal parasites using a multiparallel quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We found that, among 24 households, 42.4% reported exposure to raw sewage within their home, and from 55 stool samples, 19 (34.5%) tested positive for N. americanus, four (7.3%) for Strongyloides stercoralis, and one (1.8%) for Entamoeba histolytica. Stool tested positive for N. americanus contained low levels of parasite DNA (geometric mean 0.0302 fg/μL). Soil studies detected one (2.9%) Cryptosporidium species, and Toxocara serology assay detected one (5.2%) positive in this population. Individuals living in this high-risk environment within the United States continue to have stool samples positive for N. americanus. Gastrointestinal parasites known to be endemic to developing countries are identifiable in American poverty regions, and areas with lower disease burden are more likely to be identified by using qPCR.
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              Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso

              Background Unsafe drinking water, unimproved sanitation and lack of hygiene pose health risks, particularly to children in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in school-aged children in two regions of Burkina Faso. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in February 2015 with 385 children aged 8–14 years from eight randomly selected schools in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and a formalin-ether concentration method for the diagnosis of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. Urine samples were examined with a urine filtration technique for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Water samples from community sources (n = 37), children’s households (n = 95) and children’s drinking water cups (n = 113) were analysed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. Data on individual and family-level risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Mixed logistic regression models were employed to determine factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren. Results Intestinal parasitic infections were highly prevalent; 84.7 % of the children harboured intestinal protozoa, while helminth infections were diagnosed in 10.7 % of the children. We found significantly lower odds of pathogenic intestinal protozoa infection (Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Giardia intestinalis) among children from the Plateau Central, compared to the Centre-Ouest region (P < 0.001). Children from households with “freely roaming domestic animals” (P = 0.008), particularly dogs (P = 0.016) showed higher odds of G. intestinalis, and children reporting exposure to freshwater sources through domestic chores had higher odds of S. haematobium infection compared to children without this water contact activity (P = 0.035). Water quality, household drinking water source and storage did not emerge as significant risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections in children. Conclusions Intestinal protozoa but not helminths were highly prevalent among schoolchildren in randomly selected schools in two regions of Burkina Faso. Our findings call for specific public health measures tailored to school-aged children and rural communities in this part of Burkina Faso. It will be interesting to assess the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on the transmission of intestinal parasitic infections. Trial registration ISRCTN17968589 (date assigned: 17 July 2015). Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1835-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                raics
                Revista Arbitrada Interdisciplinaria de Ciencias de la Salud. Salud y Vida
                Salud y Vida
                Fundación Koinonía (Santa Ana de Coro, Falcón, Venezuela )
                2610-8038
                June 2022
                : 6
                : 11
                : 35-43
                Affiliations
                [1] Santa Ana de Coro orgnameUniversidad Nacional Experimental Francisco de Miranda Venezuela sandrar.unefm@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S2610-80382022000100035 S2610-8038(22)00601100035
                10.35381/s.v.v6i11.1669
                eb3b0528-937a-4722-839a-bd3a72a84f98

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 15 December 2021
                : 31 August 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 15, Pages: 9
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                SciELO Venezuela

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                parasitosis hepáticas,lung diseases parasitic,liver diseases parasitic,intestinal diseases parasitic,enfermedades pulmonares parasitarias,Parasitosis intestinales

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