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      Equivalence and practice effect of alternate forms for Malay version of Auditory Verbal Learning Test (MAVLT)

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          Abstract

          This study aims to develop two alternate forms for Malay version of Auditory Verbal Learning Test (MAVLT) and to determine their equivalency and practice effect. Ninety healthy volunteers were subjected to the following neuropsychological tests at baseline, and at one month interval according to their assigned group; group 1 (MAVLT - MAVLT), group 2 (MAVLT – Alternate Form 1 - Alternate Form 1), and group 3 (MAVLT - Alternate Form 2 - Alternate Form 2). There were no significant difference in the mean score of all the trials at baseline among the three groups, and most of the mean score of trials between MAVLT and Alternate Form 1, and between MAVLT and Alternate Form 2. There was significant improvement in the mean score of each trial when the same form was used repeatedly at the interval of one month. However, there was no significant improvement in the mean score of each trial when the Alternate Form 2 was used during repeated neuropsychological testing. The MAVLT is a reliable instrument for repeated neuropsychological testing as long as alternate forms are used. The Alternate Form 2 showed better equivalency to MAVLT and less practice effects.

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          Improvement in immediate memory after 16 weeks of tualang honey (Agro Mas) supplement in healthy postmenopausal women.

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the verbal learning and memory performance of postmenopausal women who received tualang honey (Agro Mas) in comparison with women receiving estrogen plus progestin therapy and untreated controls. A total of 102 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups: tualang honey (20 g/d)[corrected], estrogen plus progestin therapy (Femoston 1/5), and untreated control. Their verbal learning and memory performances were assessed using the Malay version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test before and after 16 weeks of intervention. Data were analyzed using the repeated-measures analysis of variance, and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. There were significant differences in the mean scores of total learning as well as the mean scores of trials A1, A5, A6, and A7 between the three groups. There were also significant differences in the overall mean scores of total learning and trials A1 and A5 between both estrogen plus progestin therapy and tualang honey groups when compared with the untreated control group. However, significant differences in the mean score for trials A6 and A7 were only observed between the estrogen plus progestin therapy and untreated control groups. Postmenopausal women who received tualang honey showed improvement in their immediate memory but not in immediate memory after the interference and delayed recall. This is comparable with the improvement seen in women receiving estrogen plus progestin therapy.
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            Neuropsychological assessment

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              Practice effects, test-retest stability, and dual baseline assessments with the California Verbal Learning Test in an HIV sample.

              Repeated neuropsychological assessments have been recently employed to investigate the natural course and effects of interventions in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Important considerations when interpreting serial assessments are the roles of practice effects and test-retest reliability on follow-up performance. Although several statistical and methodological controls have been proposed for minimizing practice effects, they have not been empirically tested in HIV samples. Three groups (HIV+/symptomatic, HIV+/asymptomatic, HIV- "at risk" controls) were administered the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) twice with a brief test-retest interval. Significant practice effects were observed on six of the CVLT measures. Test-retest stability coefficients were reported. A third and fourth administration of the CVLT was conducted to observe the impact of the dual baseline assessment approach on test performance. Trend analyses indicated that the dual baseline approach is a viable method for minimizing practice effects. The dual baseline approach also lead to improvement in a number of the stability coefficients. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXCLI J
                EXCLI J
                EXCLI J
                EXCLI Journal
                Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors
                1611-2156
                07 July 2015
                2015
                : 14
                : 801-808
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, 25100 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia
                [3 ]Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia
                [4 ]Nursing Program, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed: Zahiruddin Othman, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Phone: +609-7673000. Fax: +609-7653370, E-mail: zahirkb@ 123456usm.my
                Article
                2015-280 Doc801
                10.17179/excli2015-280
                4650958
                26600750
                Copyright © 2015 Munjir et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.

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