Speolepta leptogaster (Winnertz, 1863) is frequently occurring in European subterranean environments. As for most cave animals, studies addressing non-anatomical aspects are sparse. Here we present the first molecular study on S. leptogaster. We investigated the demographic structure (i.e. COI locus) of 69 specimens from 36 underground populations in Hesse (Central German Uplands) to get first insights into the species’ dispersal ability.In total, 14 haplotypes were revealed. Haplotype diversity was relatively high, whereas nucleotide diversity was low. Furthermore, a significant but low pattern of isolation-by-distance and (a) past population expansion event(s) were detected.Our genetic results suggest a (good) active dispersal ability for Speolepta leptogaster. The occurrence of several surface records of adult specimens corroborates this hypothesis. We discuss the developmental stages of S. leptogaster in the context of the ecological classification system and regard the species as a eutroglophile. Evidence has been found to distinguish two larval types. A reconstructed life-cycle of the species is provided.