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      Effect of Nano-HA/Collagen Composite Hydrogels on Osteogenic Behavior of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

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          This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the in vitro effect of nanosized hydroxyapatite and collagen (nHA/COL) based composite hydrogels (with different ratios of nHA and COL) on the behavior of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), isolated from either adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) or bone marrow (BM-MSCs). We hypothesized that (i) nHA/COL composite hydrogels would promote the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in an nHA concentration dependent manner, and that (ii) AT-MSCs would show higher osteogenic potential compared to BM-MSCs, due to their earlier observed higher proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential in 2D in vitro cultures [ 1]. The obtained results indicated that AT-MSCs show indeed high proliferation, differentiation and mineralization capacities in nHA/COL constructs compared to BM-MSCs, but this effect was irrespective of nHA concentration. Based on the results of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) protein level, the osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs started in the beginning of the culture period and for AT-MSCs at the end of the culture period. At a molecular level, both cell types showed high expression of osteogenic markers (bone morphogenic protein 2 [BMP2], runt-related transcription factor 2 [RUNX2], OCN or COL1) in both an nHA concentration and time dependent manner. In conclusion, AT-MSCs demonstrated higher osteogenic potential in nHA/COL based 3D micro-environments compared to BM-MSCs, in which proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were highly promoted in a time dependent manner, irrespective of nHA amount in the constructs. The fact that AT-MSCs showed high proliferation and mineralization potential is appealing for their application in future pre-clinical research as an alternative cell source for BM-MSCs.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Calcium phosphate-based osteoinductive materials.

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            Engineering hydrogels as extracellular matrix mimics.

            Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex cellular environment consisting of proteins, proteoglycans, and other soluble molecules. ECM provides structural support to mammalian cells and a regulatory milieu with a variety of important cell functions, including assembling cells into various tissues and organs, regulating growth and cell-cell communication. Developing a tailored in vitro cell culture environment that mimics the intricate and organized nanoscale meshwork of native ECM is desirable. Recent studies have shown the potential of hydrogels to mimic native ECM. Such an engineered native-like ECM is more likely to provide cells with rational cues for diagnostic and therapeutic studies. The research for novel biomaterials has led to an extension of the scope and techniques used to fabricate biomimetic hydrogel scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. In this article, we detail the progress of the current state-of-the-art engineering methods to create cell-encapsulating hydrogel tissue constructs as well as their applications in in vitro models in biomedicine.
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              BMP-2-induced Runx2 expression is mediated by Dlx5, and TGF-beta 1 opposes the BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation by suppression of Dlx5 expression.

              Intramuscular injection of BMP-2 induces ectopic bone formation in vivo. Similarly, BMP-2 treatment blocks myogenic differentiation and induces osteoblastic transdifferentiation of premyoblastic C2C12 cells. Previous reports suggested that BMP-2-stimulated Runx2 expression could play a pivotal role in transdifferentiation. However, increased Runx2 expression by TGF-beta 1 did not support osteoblast differentiation in vitro. These results indicate that the induction of Runx2 is not sufficient to explain the BMP-induced transdifferentiation. We found that Dlx5 is specifically expressed in osteogenic cells, and is specifically induced by BMP-2 or -4 signaling but not by other osteotrophic signals or other TGF-beta superfamily members. Cycloheximide treatment indicated that Dlx5 was immediately induced by BMP signaling, while Runx2 required de novo protein synthesis. In addition, blocking or overexpressing each transcription factor indicated that Dlx5 is an indispensable mediator of BMP-2-induced Runx2 expression but is not involved in TGF-beta 1-induced Runx2 expression. Moreover, TGF-beta 1 opposed BMP-2-induced osteogenic transdifferentiation through Dlx5 suppression by de novo induction of AP-1. Taken together, these results indicate that Dlx5 is an indispensable regulator of BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation as well as the counteraction point of the opposing TGF-beta 1 action.

                Author and article information

                +31(0)243614006 , jeroen.vandenbeucken@radboudumc.nl
                Stem Cell Rev
                Stem Cell Rev
                Stem Cell Reviews
                Springer US (New York )
                23 January 2016
                23 January 2016
                : 12
                : 352-364
                Department of Biomaterials, Radboudumc, Ph van Leijdenlaan 25, 6525 ex Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funded by: Netherlands Institute for Regenerative Medicine
                Award ID: FES0908; AH
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                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016


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