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      Carotenoids: biochemistry, pharmacology and treatment

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          Abstract

          Carotenoids and retinoids have several similar biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumour growth and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can affect cell growth and modulate gene expression and immune responses. Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between a high carotenoid intake in the diet with a reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular and eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves several mechanisms, including effects on gap junctional intercellular communication, growth factor signalling, cell cycle progression, differentiation‐related proteins, retinoid‐like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP‐1 transcriptional complex, the Wnt/β‐catenin pathway and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, carotenoids can stimulate the proliferation of B‐ and T‐lymphocytes, the activity of macrophages and cytotoxic T‐cells, effector T‐cell function and the production of cytokines. Recently, the beneficial effects of carotenoid‐rich vegetables and fruits in health and in decreasing the risk of certain diseases has been attributed to the major carotenoids, β‐carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, crocin (/crocetin) and curcumin, due to their antioxidant effects. It is thought that carotenoids act in a time‐ and dose‐dependent manner. In this review, we briefly describe the biological and immunological activities of the main carotenoids used for the treatment of various diseases and their possible mechanisms of action.

          Linked Articles

          This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          azam.bolhassani@yahoo.com
          Journal
          Br J Pharmacol
          Br. J. Pharmacol
          10.1111/(ISSN)1476-5381
          BPH
          British Journal of Pharmacology
          John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
          0007-1188
          1476-5381
          29 October 2016
          June 2017
          : 174
          : 11 , Themed Section: Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. Guest Editors: Ruth Andrew and Angelo A Izzo ( doiID: 10.1111/bph.v174.11 )
          : 1290-1324
          Affiliations
          [ 1 ] Department of Hepatitis and AIDS Pasteur Institute of Iran Tehran Iran
          Author notes
          [* ]Correspondence Associate Professor Azam Bolhassani, PhD, Department of Hepatitis and AIDS, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. E‐mail: azam.bolhassani@ 123456yahoo.com ; a_bolhasani@ 123456pasteur.ac.ir
          [†]

          Joint first authors.

          Article
          PMC5429337 PMC5429337 5429337 BPH13625 2016-BJP-0369-RT.R2
          10.1111/bph.13625
          5429337
          27638711
          © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society
          Page count
          Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Pages: 35, Words: 11284
          Categories
          Review Article
          Themed Section: Review Articles
          Custom metadata
          2.0
          bph13625
          June 2017
          Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.0.9 mode:remove_FC converted:13.05.2017

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