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      Dataset of host records for introduced parasitoid wasp species (Hymenoptera) in New Zealand

      , 1 , 2 , 3 , 1

      Biodiversity Data Journal

      Pensoft Publishers

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          The introduction of species to new regions is occurring at an increasing rate. These introductions typically consist of species that are deliberately introduced for the purposes of biological control of pests or of species that are accidentally introduced through human-mediated transport networks.

          Understanding the potential and actual impacts of these introduced species requires comprehensive information on their geographic distributions and biological associations.

          However, apart from a few well-known case studies, such information is lacking for many introduced species which severely hinders further assessment of risks and impact.

          New information

          A dataset is provided on host associations, geographic distributions and dates of collection for both deliberately and accidentally-introduced parasitoid wasp species ( Hymenoptera ) in New Zealand. Information was obtained by digitising specimens from the New Zealand Arthropod Collection. Dates of records range from 1921 to 2017.

          The dataset includes 1265 specimen records, representing 127 parasitoid species from 12 families, with host records for 177 host species from 61 families and eight insect orders.

          These data provide baseline information to help evaluate the risk from introduced parasitoids to non-target and native species.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Molecular analysis of parasitoid linkages (MAPL): gut contents of adult parasitoid wasps reveal larval host.

          Metamorphosing insects often have complex and poorly known life histories. In particular, what they feed on during their larval stages remains unknown for the vast majority of species, and its documentation only results from difficult and time-intensive field observations, rearing or dissections. Through the application of a DNA analysis of gut contents in adult parasitoid wasps, we were able to selectively sequence a diagnostic DNA marker that permitted the identification of the host used by these wasps during their larval stages. By reproducing these results in species with different life histories, we excluded other potential sources of host DNA, confirming that after ingestion by the parasitoid larva the host DNA can persist through metamorphosis in the abdominal contents of the adult wasp. Our discovery considerably extends the applicability of molecular analysis of gut contents by enabling the documentation of food used by insects during their larval stages and thus increasing the accuracy and precision of food web studies. The 24% success rate of our approach is surprisingly high considering the challenging context for host DNA preservation, and we discuss the factors possibly affecting this rate. We propose molecular analysis of parasitoid linkages (MAPL) as a new method to document host-parasitoid associations at a faster pace and with unrivalled precision. Because of the key regulatory role of parasitoid wasps in ecosystems, which makes them the most commonly used biological control agents, MAPL will have immediate applications in both basic and applied biological sciences. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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            Global rise in emerging alien species results from increased accessibility of new source pools

            Our ability to predict the identity of future invasive alien species is largely based upon knowledge of prior invasion history. Emerging alien species—those never encountered as aliens before—therefore pose a significant challenge to biosecurity interventions worldwide. Understanding their temporal trends, origins, and the drivers of their spread is pivotal to improving prevention and risk assessment tools. Here, we use a database of 45,984 first records of 16,019 established alien species to investigate the temporal dynamics of occurrences of emerging alien species worldwide. Even after many centuries of invasions the rate of emergence of new alien species is still high: One-quarter of first records during 2000–2005 were of species that had not been previously recorded anywhere as alien, though with large variation across taxa. Model results show that the high proportion of emerging alien species cannot be solely explained by increases in well-known drivers such as the amount of imported commodities from historically important source regions. Instead, these dynamics reflect the incorporation of new regions into the pool of potential alien species, likely as a consequence of expanding trade networks and environmental change. This process compensates for the depletion of the historically important source species pool through successive invasions. We estimate that 1–16% of all species on Earth, depending on the taxonomic group, qualify as potential alien species. These results suggest that there remains a high proportion of emerging alien species we have yet to encounter, with future impacts that are difficult to predict.
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              A modified DNA barcode approach to define trophic interactions between native and exotic pentatomids and their parasitoids.

              The establishment of invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål) outside of its native range may impact native species assemblages, including other pentatomids and their scelionid parasitoids. This has generated interest in defining species diversity and host-parasitoid associations in this system to better understand the impact of invasive alien species on trophic interactions in invaded regions. Information on scelionid-pentatomid associations in natural habitats is lacking, and species-level identification of these associations can be tenuous using rearing and dissection techniques. Naturally occurring pentatomid eggs were collected in areas where H. halys has established in Canada and were analysed using a modified DNA barcoding approach to define species-level trophic interactions. Identification was possible for >90% of egg masses. Eleven pentatomid and five scelionid species were identified, and trophic links were established. Approximately 70% of egg masses were parasitized; parasitism and parasitoid species composition were described for each species. Telenomus podisi Ashmead was the dominant parasitoid and was detected in all host species. Trissolcus euschisti Ashmead was detected in several host species, but was significantly more prevalent in Chinavia hilaris (Say) and Brochymena quadripustulata (Fabricius). Trissolcus brochymenae Ashmead and Tr. thyantae Ashmead were recorded sporadically. Parasitism of H. halys was 55%, and this species was significantly less likely to be parasitized than native pentatomids. The scelionid species composition of H. halys consisted of Te. podisi, Tr. euschisti and Tr. thyantae. Although these species cannot develop in fresh H. halys eggs, we demonstrate that parasitoids attempt to exploit this host under field conditions.

                Author and article information

                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                30 November 2020
                : 8
                [1 ] New Zealand Arthropod Collection (NZAC) - Landcare Research, Auckland, New Zealand New Zealand Arthropod Collection (NZAC) - Landcare Research Auckland New Zealand
                [2 ] School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand
                [3 ] Landcare Research, Auckland, New Zealand Landcare Research Auckland New Zealand
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Darren Ward ( wardda@ 123456landcareresearch.co.nz ).

                Academic editor: Jose Fernandez-Triana

                59472 14443
                Darren Ward, Talia Brav-Cubitt, Sarah Tassell

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 14
                Funding was received for project A17.3 'Informing Future Decisions for BCA Introductions' (Better Border Biosecurity) from the Ministry for Business, Innovation, and Employment to Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research within the Biota Portfolio.
                Data Paper (Biosciences)
                Diseases & Pests
                Ecological risk assessment
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                New Zealand


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