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      SAW Sensors for Chemical Vapors and Gases

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          Abstract

          Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology provides a sensitive platform for sensing chemicals in gaseous and fluidic states with the inherent advantages of passive and wireless operation. In this review, we provide a general overview on the fundamental aspects and some major advances of Rayleigh wave-based SAW sensors in sensing chemicals in a gaseous phase. In particular, we review the progress in general understanding of the SAW chemical sensing mechanism, optimization of the sensor characteristics, and the development of the sensors operational at different conditions. Based on previous publications, we suggest some appropriate sensing approaches for particular applications and identify new opportunities and needs for additional research in this area moving into the future.

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          Most cited references169

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          A Survey on Gas Sensing Technology

          Sensing technology has been widely investigated and utilized for gas detection. Due to the different applicability and inherent limitations of different gas sensing technologies, researchers have been working on different scenarios with enhanced gas sensor calibration. This paper reviews the descriptions, evaluation, comparison and recent developments in existing gas sensing technologies. A classification of sensing technologies is given, based on the variation of electrical and other properties. Detailed introduction to sensing methods based on electrical variation is discussed through further classification according to sensing materials, including metal oxide semiconductors, polymers, carbon nanotubes, and moisture absorbing materials. Methods based on other kinds of variations such as optical, calorimetric, acoustic and gas-chromatographic, are presented in a general way. Several suggestions related to future development are also discussed. Furthermore, this paper focuses on sensitivity and selectivity for performance indicators to compare different sensing technologies, analyzes the factors that influence these two indicators, and lists several corresponding improved approaches.
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            DIRECT PIEZOELECTRIC COUPLING TO SURFACE ELASTIC WAVES

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              Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review.

              This review presents an overview of 20 years of worldwide development in the field of biosensors based on special types of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that permit the highly sensitive detection of biorelevant molecules in liquid media (such as water or aqueous buffer solutions). 1987 saw the first approaches, which used either horizontally polarized shear waves (HPSW) in a delay line configuration on lithium tantalate (LiTaO(3)) substrates or SAW resonator structures on quartz or LiTaO(3) with periodic mass gratings. The latter are termed "surface transverse waves" (STW), and they have comparatively low attenuation values when operated in liquids. Later Love wave devices were developed, which used a film resonance effect to significantly reduce attenuation. All of these sensor approaches were accompanied by the development of appropriate sensing films. First attempts used simple layers of adsorbed antibodies. Later approaches used various types of covalently bound layers, for example those utilizing intermediate hydrogel layers. Recent approaches involve SAW biosensor devices inserted into compact systems with integrated fluidics for sample handling. To achieve this, the SAW biosensors can be embedded into micromachined polymer housings. Combining these two features will extend the system to create versatile biosensor arrays for generic lab use or for diagnostic purposes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                sensors
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                08 April 2017
                April 2017
                : 17
                : 4
                : 801
                Affiliations
                [1 ]National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA 15236, USA; dg07@ 123456andrew.cmu.edu
                [2 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
                [3 ]Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jagannath.devkota@ 123456netl.doe.gov (J.D.); paul.ohodnicki@ 123456netl.doe.gov (P.R.O.); Tel.: +1-412-386-6927 (J.D.); +1-412-386-7389 (P.R.O.)
                Article
                sensors-17-00801
                10.3390/s17040801
                5422162
                28397760
                eb557053-5707-4675-a7e9-9079beb12f0f
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 23 February 2017
                : 04 April 2017
                Categories
                Review

                Biomedical engineering
                acoustic waves,acoustoelectric effect,interdigital transducer,mass loading,piezoelectric effect,radiofrequency,sensing layer,viscoelasticity

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