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      Liraglutide attenuates cardiac remodeling and improves heart function after abdominal aortic constriction through blocking angiotensin II type 1 receptor in rats

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure by eliciting cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects in animals and patients. This study investigates whether GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide inhibits abdominal aortic constriction (AAC)-induced cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction through blocking Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling.

          Methods

          Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham operation and abdominal aortic banding procedure for 16 weeks. In treated rats, liraglutide (0.3 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected twice daily or telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day), the AT1R blocker, was administered by gastric gavage.

          Results

          Relative to the animals with AAC, liraglutide reduced protein level of the AT1R and upregulated the AT2R, as evidenced by reduced ratio of AT1R/AT2R (0.59±0.04 vs. 0.91±0.06, p<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 was upregulated, tissue levels of malondialdehyde and B-type natriuretic peptide were reduced, and superoxide dismutase activity was increased. Along with a reduction in HW/BW ratio, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was inhibited. In coincidence with these changes, liraglutide significantly decreased the populations of macrophages and myofibroblasts in the myocardium, which were accompanied by reduced protein levels of transforming growth factor beta1, Smad2/3/4, and upregulated smad7. The synthesis of collagen I and III was inhibited and collagen-rich fibrosis was attenuated. Consistent with these findings, cardiac systolic function was preserved, as shown by increased left ventricular systolic pressure (110±5 vs. 99±2 mmHg, p<0.05), ejection fraction (83%±2% vs. 69%±4%, p<0.05) and fraction shortening (49%±2% vs. 35%±3%, p<0.05). Treatment with telmisartan provided a comparable level of protection as compared with liraglutide in all the parameters measured.

          Conclusion

          Taken together, liraglutide ameliorates cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction, potentially via suppressing the AT1R-mediated events. These data indicate that liraglutide might be selected as an add-on drug to prevent the progression of heart failure.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Cardiovascular Actions and Clinical Outcomes With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors.

          Potentiation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) action through selective GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonism or by prevention of enzymatic degradation by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) promotes glycemic reduction for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus by glucose-dependent control of insulin and glucagon secretion. GLP-1R agonists also decelerate gastric emptying, reduce body weight by reduction of food intake and lower circulating lipoproteins, inflammation, and systolic blood pressure. Preclinical studies demonstrate that both GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors exhibit cardioprotective actions in animal models of myocardial ischemia and ventricular dysfunction through incompletely characterized mechanisms. The results of cardiovascular outcome trials in human subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased cardiovascular risk have demonstrated a cardiovascular benefit (significant reduction in time to first major adverse cardiovascular event) with the GLP-1R agonists liraglutide (LEADER trial [Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Ourcome Results], -13%) and semaglutide (SUSTAIN-6 trial [Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-term Outcomes with Semaglutide], -24%). In contrast, cardiovascular outcome trials examining the safety of the shorter-acting GLP-1R agonist lixisenatide (ELIXA trial [Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrom]) and the DPP-4 inhibitors saxagliptin (SAVOR-TIMI 53 trial [Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53]), alogliptin (EXAMINE trial [Examination of Cardiovascular Outcomes With Alogliptin Versus Standard of Care in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Acute Coronary Syndrome]), and sitagliptin (TECOS [Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes With Sitagliptin]) found that these agents neither increased nor decreased cardiovascular events. Here we review the cardiovascular actions of GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, with a focus on the translation of mechanisms derived from preclinical studies to complementary findings in clinical studies. We highlight areas of uncertainty requiring more careful scrutiny in ongoing basic science and clinical studies. As newer more potent GLP-1R agonists and coagonists are being developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, the delineation of the potential mechanisms that underlie the cardiovascular benefit and safety of these agents have immediate relevance for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
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            Prevalence and prognostic significance of heart failure stages: application of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association heart failure staging criteria in the community.

            Heart failure (HF) is a progressive disorder associated with frequent morbidity and mortality. An American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology staging classification of HF has been developed to emphasize early detection and prevention. The prevalence of HF stages and their association with mortality are unknown. We sought to estimate HF stage prevalence in the community and to measure the association of HF stages with mortality. A population-based, cross-sectional, random sample of 2029 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents aged > or = 45 years was identified. Participants were classified by medical record review, symptom questionnaire, physical examination, and echocardiogram as follows: stage 0, healthy; stage A, HF risk factors; stage B, asymptomatic cardiac structural or functional abnormalities; stage C, HF symptoms; and stage D, severe HF. In the cohort, 32% were stage 0, 22% stage A, 34% stage B, 12% stage C, and 0.2% stage D. Mean B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations (in pg/mL) increased by stages: stage 0=26, stage A=32, stage B=53, stage C=137, and stage D=353. Survival at 5 years was 99% in stage 0, 97% in stage A, 96% in stage B, 75% in stage C, and 20% in stage D. The present study provides prevalence estimates and prognostic validation for HF staging in a community cohort. Of note, 56% of adults > or = 45 years of age were classified as being in stage A (risk factors) or B (asymptomatic ventricular dysfunction). HF staging underscores the magnitude of the population at risk for progression to overt HF.
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              The effects of different angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers on the regulation of the ACE-AngII-AT1 and ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axes in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in male mice.

              Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have been effectively used in hypertension and cardiac remodeling. However, the differences among them are still unclear. We designed this study to examine and compare the effects of several ARBs widely used in clinics, including Olmesartan, Candesartan, Telmisartan, Losartan, Valsartan and Irbesartan, on the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis and the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis during the development of cardiac remodeling after pressure overload. Although all of the six ARBs, attenuated the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 2 or 4weeks in the wild-type mice evaluated by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements, the degree of attenuation by Olmesartan, Candesartan and Losartan tended to be larger than that of the other three drugs tested. Additionally, the degree of downregulation of the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis and upregulation of the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis was higher in response to Olmesartan, Candesartan and Losartan administration in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, in angiotensinogen-knockdown mice, TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure were inhibited by Olmesartan, Candesartan and Losartan but not by Telmisartan, Valsartan and Irbesartan administration. Furthermore, only Olmesartan and Candesartan could downregulate the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis and upregulate the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis in vitro. Our data suggest that Olmesartan, Candesartan and Losartan could effectively inhibit pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling even when with knockdown of Ang II, possibly through upregulation of the expression of the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis and downregulation of the expression of the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis. In contrast, Telmisartan, Valsartan and Irbesartan only played a role in the presence of AngII, and Losartan had no effect in the presence of AngII in vitro.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                06 August 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 2745-2757
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physiology, Shanxi Medical University , Taiyuan, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, Linfen Vocational and Technical College , Linfen, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Navicent Health , Macon, GA, USA
                [4 ]Basic Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine , Savannah, GA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhi-Qing ZhaoBasic Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine , 1250 East 66th Street, Savannah, GA31404, USATel +86 912 721 8208Fax +86 912 721 8268 Email zhao_z@mercer.edu
                Article
                213910
                10.2147/DDDT.S213910
                6690048
                © 2019 Zheng et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 40, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Original Research

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