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      The maternal microbiota drives early postnatal innate immune development.

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          Abstract

          Postnatal colonization of the body with microbes is assumed to be the main stimulus to postnatal immune development. By transiently colonizing pregnant female mice, we show that the maternal microbiota shapes the immune system of the offspring. Gestational colonization increases intestinal group 3 innate lymphoid cells and F4/80(+)CD11c(+) mononuclear cells in the pups. Maternal colonization reprograms intestinal transcriptional profiles of the offspring, including increased expression of genes encoding epithelial antibacterial peptides and metabolism of microbial molecules. Some of these effects are dependent on maternal antibodies that potentially retain microbial molecules and transmit them to the offspring during pregnancy and in milk. Pups born to mothers transiently colonized in pregnancy are better able to avoid inflammatory responses to microbial molecules and penetration of intestinal microbes.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Science
          Science (New York, N.Y.)
          1095-9203
          0036-8075
          Mar 18 2016
          : 351
          : 6279
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Maurice Müller Laboratories (DKF), Universitätsklinik für Viszerale Chirurgie und Medizin Inselspital, Murtenstrasse 35, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.
          [2 ] Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.
          [3 ] Division of Chronic Inflammation and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
          [4 ] Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.
          [5 ] Maurice Müller Laboratories (DKF), Universitätsklinik für Viszerale Chirurgie und Medizin Inselspital, Murtenstrasse 35, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland. andrew.macpherson@insel.ch.
          Article
          351/6279/1296
          10.1126/science.aad2571
          26989247
          Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

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