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      2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: Executive Summary : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines

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          Most cited references 245

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          Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for the prevention of heart-failure events.

          This trial was designed to determine whether cardiac-resynchronization therapy (CRT) with biventricular pacing would reduce the risk of death or heart-failure events in patients with mild cardiac symptoms, a reduced ejection fraction, and a wide QRS complex. During a 4.5-year period, we enrolled and followed 1820 patients with ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy, an ejection fraction of 30% or less, a QRS duration of 130 msec or more, and New York Heart Association class I or II symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:2 ratio to receive CRT plus an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (1089 patients) or an ICD alone (731 patients). The primary end point was death from any cause or a nonfatal heart-failure event (whichever came first). Heart-failure events were diagnosed by physicians who were aware of the treatment assignments, but they were adjudicated by a committee that was unaware of assignments. During an average follow-up of 2.4 years, the primary end point occurred in 187 of 1089 patients in the CRT-ICD group (17.2%) and 185 of 731 patients in the ICD-only group (25.3%) (hazard ratio in the CRT-ICD group, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.84; P=0.001). The benefit did not differ significantly between patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and those with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The superiority of CRT was driven by a 41% reduction in the risk of heart-failure events, a finding that was evident primarily in a prespecified subgroup of patients with a QRS duration of 150 msec or more. CRT was associated with a significant reduction in left ventricular volumes and improvement in the ejection fraction. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the overall risk of death, with a 3% annual mortality rate in each treatment group. Serious adverse events were infrequent in the two groups. CRT combined with ICD decreased the risk of heart-failure events in relatively asymptomatic patients with a low ejection fraction and wide QRS complex. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00180271.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Rapid measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure.

            B-type natriuretic peptide is released from the cardiac ventricles in response to increased wall tension. We conducted a prospective study of 1586 patients who came to the emergency department with acute dyspnea and whose B-type natriuretic peptide was measured with a bedside assay. The clinical diagnosis of congestive heart failure was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists, who were blinded to the results of the B-type natriuretic peptide assay. The final diagnosis was dyspnea due to congestive heart failure in 744 patients (47 percent), dyspnea due to noncardiac causes in 72 patients with a history of left ventricular dysfunction (5 percent), and no finding of congestive heart failure in 770 patients (49 percent). B-type natriuretic peptide levels by themselves were more accurate than any historical or physical findings or laboratory values in identifying congestive heart failure as the cause of dyspnea. The diagnostic accuracy of B-type natriuretic peptide at a cutoff of 100 pg per milliliter was 83.4 percent. The negative predictive value of B-type natriuretic peptide at levels of less than 50 pg per milliliter was 96 percent. In multiple logistic-regression analysis, measurements of B-type natriuretic peptide added significant independent predictive power to other clinical variables in models predicting which patients had congestive heart failure. Used in conjunction with other clinical information, rapid measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide is useful in establishing or excluding the diagnosis of congestive heart failure in patients with acute dyspnea. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure.

                (1997)
              The role of cardiac glycosides in treating patients with chronic heart failure and normal sinus rhythm remains controversial. We studied the effect of digoxin on mortality and hospitalization in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. In the main trial, patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.45 or less were randomly assigned to digoxin (3397 patients) or placebo (3403 patients) in addition to diuretics and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (median dose of digoxin, 0.25 mg per day; average follow-up, 37 months). In an ancillary trial of patients with ejection fractions greater than 0.45, 492 patients were randomly assigned to digoxin and 496 to placebo. In the main trial, mortality was unaffected. There were 1181 deaths (34.8 percent) with digoxin and 1194 deaths (35.1 percent) with placebo (risk ratio when digoxin was compared with placebo, 0.99; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.07; P=0.80). In the digoxin group, there was a trend toward a decrease in the risk of death attributed to worsening heart failure (risk ratio, 0.88; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.77 to 1.01; P=0.06). There were 6 percent fewer hospitalizations overall in that group than in the placebo group, and fewer patients were hospitalized for worsening heart failure (26.8 percent vs. 34.7 percent; risk ratio, 0.72; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.79; P<0.001). In the ancillary trial, the findings regarding the primary combined outcome of death or hospitalization due to worsening heart failure were consistent with the results of the main trial. Digoxin did not reduce overall mortality, but it reduced the rate of hospitalization both overall and for worsening heart failure. These findings define more precisely the role of digoxin in the management of chronic heart failure.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                October 15 2013
                October 15 2013
                : 128
                : 16
                : 1810-1852
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ACCF/AHA representative.
                [2 ]ACCF/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines liaison.
                [3 ]Writing committee members are required to recuse themselves from voting on sections to which their specific relationships with industry and other entities may apply; see Appendix 1 for recusal information.
                [4 ]American College of Physicians representative.
                [5 ]American College of Chest Physicians representative.
                [6 ]International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation representative.
                [7 ]ACCF/AHA Task Force on Performance Measures liaison.
                [8 ]American Academy of Family Physicians representative.
                Article
                10.1161/CIR.0b013e31829e8807
                23741057
                © 2013

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