Amyloid imaging with (18)F-labeled radiotracers will allow widespread use, facilitating research, diagnosis, and therapeutic development for Alzheimer disease. The purpose of the study program was to compare cortical amyloid deposition using (18)F-florbetaben and PET in controls and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), vascular dementia (VaD), Parkinson disease (PD), and Alzheimer disease (AD). One hundred nine subjects in 3 clinical studies at Austin Health were reviewed: 32 controls, 20 subjects with MCI, and 30 patients with AD, 11 with FTLD, 7 with DLB, 5 with PD, and 4 with VaD underwent PET after intravenous injection of 300 MBq of (18)F-florbetaben. Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) using the cerebellar cortex as a reference region were calculated between 90 and 110 min after injection. When compared with the other groups, AD patients demonstrated significantly higher SUVRs (P < 0.0001) in neocortical areas. Most AD patients (96%) and 60% of MCI subjects showed diffuse cortical (18)F-florbetaben retention. In contrast, only 9% of FTLD, 25% of VaD, 29% of DLB, and no PD patients and 16% of controls showed cortical binding. Although there was a correlation between Mini Mental State Examination and β-amyloid burden in the MCI group, no correlation was observed in controls, FTLD or AD. (18)F-florbetaben had high sensitivity for AD, clearly distinguished patients with FTLD from AD, and provided results comparable to those reported with (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound B in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases.