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      Group differences in health literacy are ameliorated in ehealth literacy

      research-article
      a , a , b
      Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine
      Routledge
      eHealth literacy, ethnic differences, health literacy, immigration, digital divide

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          ABSTRACT

          Background

          Heath literacy and eHealth literacy are skills that enable individuals to seek, understand and use information in ways which promote and maintain health. The present study examined group differences (ethnicity, immigration) in both literacies and whether there exists an association between the literacies and potential outcomes/gains in health behaviors, health care utilization, perceived health and perceived outcomes of Internet search.

          Methods

          Participants included 819 Israeli men and women who responded to a nationally representative random-digital-dial (RDD) telephone survey. Respondents were veteran Jews, immigrants from the Former Soviet Union, and Palestinian Citizens of Israel.

          Results

          Significant differences between the groups were found in health literacy, especially in higher ordered skills, so that the immigrant group was the lowest, after accounting for demographic variables. No significant group differences were found in eHealth literacy. Health literacy was found to be significantly associated with healthcare utilization, perceived health and perceived outcomes of Internet search while eHealth literacy was associated with perceived health and perceived outcomes of Internet search. No interaction was found between group and literacies in the prediction of the outcomes.

          Conclusions

          Immigration hampers health literacy but differences are ameliorated in eHealth literacy. Finding on association between literacies and outcomes replicated previous ones and the absence of moderation by group attests to the robustness of the models on health literacies.

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          Most cited references75

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          Low health literacy and health outcomes: an updated systematic review.

          Approximately 80 million Americans have limited health literacy, which puts them at greater risk for poorer access to care and poorer health outcomes. To update a 2004 systematic review and determine whether low health literacy is related to poorer use of health care, outcomes, costs, and disparities in health outcomes among persons of all ages. English-language articles identified through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Cochrane Library databases and hand-searching (search dates for articles on health literacy, 2003 to 22 February 2011; for articles on numeracy, 1966 to 22 February 2011). Two reviewers independently selected studies that compared outcomes by differences in directly measured health literacy or numeracy levels. One reviewer abstracted article information into evidence tables; a second reviewer checked information for accuracy. Two reviewers independently rated study quality by using predefined criteria, and the investigative team jointly graded the overall strength of evidence. 96 relevant good- or fair-quality studies in 111 articles were identified: 98 articles on health literacy, 22 on numeracy, and 9 on both. Low health literacy was consistently associated with more hospitalizations; greater use of emergency care; lower receipt of mammography screening and influenza vaccine; poorer ability to demonstrate taking medications appropriately; poorer ability to interpret labels and health messages; and, among elderly persons, poorer overall health status and higher mortality rates. Poor health literacy partially explains racial disparities in some outcomes. Reviewers could not reach firm conclusions about the relationship between numeracy and health outcomes because of few studies or inconsistent results among studies. Searches were limited to articles published in English. No Medical Subject Heading terms exist for identifying relevant studies. No evidence concerning oral health literacy (speaking and listening skills) and outcomes was found. Low health literacy is associated with poorer health outcomes and poorer use of health care services. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
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            Health literacy as a public health goal: a challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century

            D Nutbeam (2000)
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              Self-Rated Health and Mortality: A Review of Twenty-Seven Community Studies

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Health Psychol Behav Med
                Health Psychol Behav Med
                Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine
                Routledge
                2164-2850
                15 May 2021
                2021
                : 9
                : 1
                : 480-497
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Behavioral Sciences, Ruppin Academic Center , Emeq Hefer, Israel
                [b ]Faculty of Social Welfare and Health, School of Public Health, University of Haifa , Haifa, Israel
                Author notes
                [CONTACT ] Efrat Neter neter@ 123456ruppin.ac.il Department of Behavioral Sciences, Ruppin Academic Center , Beit 3, Emeq Hefer4025000, Israel
                Article
                1926256
                10.1080/21642850.2021.1926256
                8158255
                34104571
                eb87a49d-7df7-45ab-875e-9dbc4ca7935e
                © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 3, References: 83, Pages: 18
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Article

                ehealth literacy,ethnic differences,health literacy,immigration,digital divide

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